国际口腔医学杂志 ›› 2021, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (5): 556-562.doi: 10.7518/gjkq.2021099

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

卵泡抑素在口腔颌面部发育中的作用及其治疗应用前景

刘嘉程1(),孟昭松2,李宏捷1,隋磊3()   

  1. 1.天津医科大学口腔医院病理科 天津 300070
    2.天津医科大学口腔医院口腔颌面外科 天津 300070
    3.天津医科大学口腔医院修复科 天津 300070
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-21 修回日期:2021-06-06 出版日期:2021-09-01 发布日期:2021-09-10
  • 通讯作者: 隋磊
  • 作者简介:刘嘉程,学士,Email: 928299023@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(81700927)

The role of follistatin in oral and maxillofacial development and its therapeutic application prospect

Liu Jiacheng1(),Meng Zhaosong2,Li Hongjie1,Sui Lei3()   

  1. 1. Dept. of Pathology, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China
    2. Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China
    3. Dept. of Prosthodontics, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China
  • Received:2021-02-21 Revised:2021-06-06 Online:2021-09-01 Published:2021-09-10
  • Contact: Lei Sui
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(81700927)

摘要:

卵泡抑素(FST)是一种由垂体、肝、骨等多种组织合成分泌的单链糖蛋白,广泛分布于人体组织中,具有多种生理病理功能。体内外实验证实FST在炎症、骨损伤、肌肉萎缩等方面均有治疗价值。FST在维持口腔颌面部组织内环境稳态中发挥了关键作用,具有治疗口腔炎症、颌骨损伤等疾病的潜在价值,对牙齿、唇、腭、颌骨等软硬组织的发育也非常重要。FST在口腔颌面部上皮和间充质组织中均有表达,通过结合激活素和骨形态发生蛋白拮抗转化生长因子β信号通路,参与调控口腔颌面部的组织发育和相关疾病的发生发展。本文着重阐述FST在口腔颌面部发育及疾病中的作用、机制和应用前景,旨在为其在口腔医学领域的进一步研究和临床应用奠定基础。

关键词: 卵泡抑素, 生长发育, 鳞状细胞癌, 炎症, 骨再生

Abstract:

Follistatin (FST) is a single-chain glycoprotein synthesized and secreted by pituitary, liver, bone, and other tissues. It has extensive tissue distribution and a variety of physiological and pathological functions proven to have therapeutic value in inflammation, bone injury, and muscle atrophy by in vivo and in vitro experiments. Recent studies have demonstrated that FST plays a key role in maintaining the homeostasis of oral and maxillofacial tissues. FST has potential value in the treatment of oral inflammation, bone injury, and other diseases and is particularly important for the development of soft and hard tissues, such as teeth, lip, palate, and jaw. FST expresses in oral and maxillofacial epithelium and mesenchyme, where it antagonizes the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway through binding to activin and bone morphogenetic proteins. Therefore, it participates in the regulation of oral and maxillofacial development as well as the occurrence and development of related diseases. This paper focuses on the role, mechanism, and application prospect of FST in oral and maxillofacial development and diseases in order to lay a foundation for its further research and clinical application in the field of stomatology.

Key words: follistatin, growth and development, squamous cell cancer, inflammation, bone regeneration

中图分类号: 

  • R782

图1

FST调控ACT、BMPs信号通路的机制 ACTR:ACT受体;BMPR:BMPs受体。A:Ⅰ、Ⅱ型ACTR和Ⅰ、Ⅱ型BMPR均位于细胞膜跨膜区域;①ACT、BMPs首先在细胞膜外与Ⅰ型及Ⅱ型受体形成复合体;②使Ⅰ型受体于膜内磷酸化,实现胞外到胞内的信号传导;③磷酸化的Ⅰ型受体招募并磷酸化Smads;④磷酸化的Smads招募Smad4,使其与磷酸化的Smads形成复合体;⑤该复合体入核,调控下游基因的表达。B:FST组成头尾相连的二聚体,在膜外与ACT二聚体结合,阻止ACT与受体结合,阻断信号传导。C:FST在膜外与BMPs、BMPR组成三聚体,抑制Ⅰ型BMPR磷酸化,阻断信号传导。"

表 1

FST靶蛋白信号通路组分在口腔颌面部的分布、功能及FST作用机制"

信号通路 信号蛋白 主要表达细胞 生理功能 FST作用机制
ACT信号
通路
ACT[16-17,34] 牙间充质细胞、成骨细胞 参与早期骨和牙胚的形成及破骨细胞分化 FST二聚体与ACT二聚体构成复合体,使ACT与受体结合受阻
Smad2[18,29,38] 牙上皮、间充质细胞、成牙本质细胞、单核巨噬细胞 参与中胚层和下颌骨的发育,调控釉质、牙本质、破骨细胞的形成 磷酸化受阻
Smad3[18,38] 同Smad2 调控釉质、牙本质的形成和破骨细胞分化 同Smad2
通用传导
蛋白
Smad4[19-20,30] 牙上皮、间充质细胞、成牙本质细胞 参与第一鳃弓、面突和正常牙体的发育,维持牙源性干细胞稳态 招募及入核受阻
BMP信号
通路
BMP2[21-23,28,34] 成骨细胞、牙上皮、间充质细胞、成牙本质细胞 参与早期骨形成及腭发育、牙根发育,促进成牙本质细胞和成釉细胞分化 1分子FST、1分子BMP与1分子Ⅱ型BMP受体构成复合体,使Ⅰ型BMP受体磷酸化受阻
BMP4[16,28,39] 成骨细胞、成釉细胞、牙间充质细胞 参与早期骨形成和腭发育,调控成釉细胞分化和釉质形成,参与上皮间充质的相互作用 同BMP2
BMP7[16,24,39] 成骨细胞、前成釉细胞、前成牙本质细胞 参与早期骨形成,维持HERS正常结构 同BMP2
Smad1[21-23,36-37] 同BMP2 参与BMP2的生理过程 磷酸化受阻
Smad5[21-23,36-37] 同BMP2 参与BMP2的生理过程 同Smad1
Smad8[21-23,36-37] 同BMP2 参与BMP2的生理过程 同Smad1
Smad9[36] 成骨细胞 参与BMP2骨调控过程 同Smad1
GDF11[25,26] 胚胎期面部上皮、间充质细胞 参与唇、腭发育 FST二聚体与GDF11二聚体构成复合体,使GDF11与受体结合受阻

图2

FST的治疗应用前景 A:FST通过抑制ACT信号通路治疗口腔鳞状细胞癌;B:FST通过抑制ACT信号通路治疗口腔炎症性疾病;C:FST通过调控ACT、BMPs信号通路促进颌骨损伤后再生及正畸骨改建。"

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