01 March 2024, Volume 51 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
Expert Forum
Discussion of an innovating orthodontic technique: a spherical bracket, lock-hook and light force treatment system
Hong He,Li Ji
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  125-136.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024032
Abstract ( 1431 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF(pc) (7241KB) ( 131 )   Save

Precise torque expression and stable anchorage control are key points in orthodontic treatment. The concern of patients’ quality of life and oral health during orthodontic treatment is increasing. However, most orthodontic instruments cannot achieve the goals mentioned above. A spherical bracket exhibits advantages in these aspects and mitigates these problems to a certain extent. The spherical surface decreases the ulcer rate. Biofilm formation is inhibited, thereby reducing the probability of gum and periodontal disease occurrence. The bonding failure rate of the spherical bracket is lower than that of other self-ligating brackets by 95%. The lock-hook system is the most innovative aspect of the spherical bracket. The system contains thread, screw, and arch wire systems. The lock-hook system benefits torque expression because of its mitigating function. Furthermore, it improves the stability of anchorage when the lock screw is applied. The arch wire system containing three unique wires (0.152 4 mm×0.635 0 mm, 0.203 2 mm×0.584 2 mm, 0.254 0 mm×0.558 8 mm) can be used by orthodontist to control torque with light force during alignment. Therefore, the spherical bracket has gained increasing interest because of its outstanding performance such as comfort, low bonding failure rate, accurate torque expression, stable anchorage, and light force.

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Tooth Eruption
Research progress on the etiology of the delayed eruption of multiple permanent teeth
Jie Huang,Qiannan Deng,Yao Meng,Man Liu
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  137-143.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024020
Abstract ( 1271 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF(pc) (848KB) ( 86 )   Save

The delayed eruption of permanent teeth refers to the phenomenon wherein the eruption time of permanent teeth is significantly later than the normal eruption period, which can not only cause malocclusion in children, but also affect the chewing, pronunciation, and facial appearance of children, thereby causing damage to the normal growth and mental health of children as well as a burden on parents when the damage is serious. This phenomenon is common in se-veral permanent teeth, but some children suffer from this occurrence in multiple permanent teeth. The causes of the delayed eruption of multiple permanent teeth are complex. Apart from local mechanical factors, such causes may be related to environmental (diseases, nutrition, infection, radiation, drugs, etc.), genetics, and other factors. Thus, this article reviews the abovementioned factors to provide ideas for follow-up etiological research and clinical diagnosis.

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Research progress on the failure of tooth eruption in deciduous molars
Manting Wang,Minjian Shen,Xiaoxia Li,Wenxiang Jiang,Zhifang Wu
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  144-150.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024025
Abstract ( 971 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF(pc) (929KB) ( 97 )   Save

Failure of tooth eruption is more common in permanent teeth than in deciduous teeth. The most commonly affected teeth are deciduous mandibular second molars in deciduous dentition. In addition, accurate diagnosis of tooth eruption failure is challenging for clinicians, and its exact etiology remains unknown. The consensus on the management of tooth eruption failure in deciduous molars has not been reached. At present, observation, restoration, extraction, surgical luxation, or orthodontic traction are the available treatment methods. Appropriate treatment options primarily rely on the type and severity of tooth eruption failure, the succeeding permanent teeth, and the accompanied complications. Thus, this article reviews the etiology, clinical manifestations, classification, and treatments of tooth eruption failure in deci-duous molars to provide some reference for related clinical diagnosis and treatments.

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Anatomical structure of maxillary sinus and its relationship with endodontic microsurgery in maxillary posterior area
Yingqi Cheng,Zhengwei Huang
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  151-156.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024023
Abstract ( 706 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (758KB) ( 48 )   Save

The maxillary posterior teeth, where the anatomy is complicated, have a close relationship with the maxillary sinus, so endodontic microsurgery can be difficult in this area. Some anatomical features of the maxillary sinus increase the operative risk of injuring adjacent anatomical structures, which may affect the surgical process and prognosis. This review summarizes the anatomical characteristics of the maxillary sinus, including its development and morphology, maxillary sinus ostium, Schneiderian mucosa, maxillary sinus septa, posterior alveolar artery, and its relationship with maxillary posterior teeth. From the aspects of preoperative preparation, surgical approaches, complications, prognosis, and success rate, the influence of the maxillary sinus on endodontic microsurgery in the area of maxillary posterior teeth is discussed briefly.

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Progress in research into the detection and recovery methods of interproximal contact area
Hongyan Wang,Yuchun Sun,Hu Chen,Feng Wu
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  157-163.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024015
Abstract ( 665 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (819KB) ( 119 )   Save

The interproximal contact area is a physiological entity affected by various factors and is of great significance for maintaining the stability of the dental arch and protecting the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. The quantitative assessment of interproximal contact areas on the basis of tightness, position, shape, area, and other parameters is a common clinical method. Tightness is measured using dental floss or metal strips. One-, two- and three-dimensional positions, shapes, and areas are measured successively. Clinical restoration often involves the recovery of interproximal contact loss. Clarifying the criteria and methods for restoration is particularly critical for ensuring the quality of prostheses. The review briefly summarizes progress in research into detection methods, recovery standards and methods for the interproximal contact area.

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Progress in research into the influence of the incisive canal on the three-dimensional movement of maxillary central incisors
Yunxin Chen,Shushu Li,Zicheng Huang,Weidong Kong
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  164-171.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024029
Abstract ( 617 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (1225KB) ( 47 )   Save

The position of the maxillary central incisor is essential in facial aesthetics. In orthodontic treatment, the maxillary central incisor moves in three-dimensional directions according to actual situations although the range of its movement is usually assumed to be restricted by the labial and palatal cortices. An incisive canal with an irregular anato-mical shape in the maxilla can be detected through cone beam computed tomograph (CBCT), and the wall of this canal is surrounded by dense cortical bones. If the maxillary central incisor invades it, the root will be absorbed. Therefore, the range of movement is closely related to the shape and position of the incisive canal and should be considered for the prevention of unnecessary injury to the tooth root. This article reviews the effect of the incisive canal on the three-dimensional movement of the maxillary central incisor.

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Case Report
Application of fragment reattachment with digital veneers in complex crown fractures of the upper anterior teeth: a case report
Yuze Yang,Luying Ai,Ziliang Zhang,Kang Xiao,Yudian Mao,Yun Wu,Ling Chen
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  172-175.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024026
Abstract ( 64 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1831KB) ( 68 )   Save

This article reported a case of a complicated crown fracture of an upper anterior tooth caused by trauma. During treatment, first, pulpotomy and crown reattachment were performed to preserve the vitality and morphology of the affected tooth; second, ultra-thin veneers and chair-side staining were used to increase the retention force and restore the aesthetics; finally, the tooth and pulp were preserved, and the initial morphology, color, occlusion, and adjacent relationship of the affected tooth were restored to the maximum extent. Clinical results have been stable for more than 2 years since the follow-up.

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Original Articles
A meta-analysis of the efficacy between bioceramic material iRoot BP Plus and mineral trioxide aggregate in pulpo-tomy
Yanduo Yang,Hong Chen,Zuda Xu,Yuan Zhao
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  176-186.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024036
Abstract ( 76 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (5136KB) ( 100 )   Save

Objective This study aims to compare the efficacy of iRoot BP Plus and MTA as pulp capping agents for vital pulp therapy. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of iRoot BP Plus and MTA in the treatment of pulpo-tomy were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP databases from the establishment to March 2023. Two members conducted independent screening according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The outcome indicators included clinical success rate, pulp capping operation time, dentin bridge formation rate, and tooth discoloration rate. The Cochrane bias risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the literature, and Stata 15.0 was used for meta-analysis. Results A total of 18 RCTs were included. The results of meta-analysis showed 1) no significant difference in the clinical success rate between iRoot BP Plus group and MTA group at 3, 6, and 12 months after the operation (P> 0.05). 2) The operation time of iRoot BP Plus was significantly shorter than that of MTA (P<0.05). 3)The formation rate of dentin calcified bridge in the iRoot BP Plus group was higher than that in the MTA group at 3 months after the operation (P<0.05). 4) At the last follow-up, the tooth discoloration rate of the iRoot BP Plus group was significantly lower than that of the MTA group (P<0.05). Conclusion The clinical success rate of iRoot BP Plus for pulpotomy is similar to that of MTA, but it has shorter pulp-capping operation time and lower probability of tooth discoloration than MTA pulp capping.

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Application of degradable new polylactic acid membrane in guiding bone tissue regeneration
Yaxuan Hu,Zihan Ma,Jiangling Wang,Yongyue Wang
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  187-192.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024030
Abstract ( 52 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1842KB) ( 51 )   Save

Objective This work aimed to explore the application effect of a new biodegradable polylactic acid membrane (PDLLA/PLLA) in guiding bone tissue regeneration. Methods A total of 24 New Zealand white rabbits, weighing 2.5~3.0 kg, were prepared at the lower edge of the mandible near the body of the mandible on one side of the animal. The dimensions of the bone defect were 5 mm×3 mm. The animals were randomly divided into the experimental group, control group, and blank group, with eight animals in each group. The experimental group animals were filled with Bio-oss bone powder, and PDLLA/PLLA was covered on the defect surface. The control group animals were filled with Bio-oss bone powder, and a Guidor polylactic acid membrane was covered on the defect surface. The blank group animals were not treated. At 8 and 12 weeks after the operation, specimens of the defect were collected for gross observation, micro-CT examination, and histopathological observation. Results During the experiment, no inflammation and rejection reaction occurred in the experimental animals in each group, and the wounds in each group healed well and osteogenesis was active. The gross observation showed that the animals in the experimental group had more bone formation and less material degradation at 8 weeks after the operation, whereas the animals in the control group had less bone formation and complete material degradation compared with the experimental group. At 12 weeks after the operation, the amount of bone formation of animals in the experimental group and the control group was the same, but the materials in the experimental group were further degraded. The amount of bone formation of animals in the blank group was less than that in the experimental group and the control group. At 8 and 12 weeks after the operation, micro-CT revealed that the new bone in the defect area of the experimental group and the control group was significantly more than that of the blank group. At 8 and 12 weeks after the operation, the bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV), bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular number (Tb.N) of the new bone in the experimental group and the control group were significantly higher than those in the blank group. Histological analysis demonstrated that the cells surrounding the new bone trabeculae in the experimental group grew actively at 8 weeks after the operation, and a small amount of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were visible. At 12 weeks after the operation, a large number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were found around the bone trabeculae of the experimental group animals, and the bone tissue density at the bone defect site was close to the surrounding normal bone tissue. Conclusion Thus, the new polylactic acid membrane (PDLLA/PLLA) has good biocompatibility and bone conductivity, and it can significantly promote the healing of defects.

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Diagnosis and treatment progress and clinical characteristics of immunoglobulin G4-related sialadenitis
Yu Zhang,Zhiyu Jia,Huifang Tang,Zhiyong Zhang,Wenjing Li,Songbo Tian
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  193-200.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024005
Abstract ( 80 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (868KB) ( 82 )   Save

Immunoglobulin G4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-RS) is a chronic autoimmune disease closely associated with IgG4. This disease is an uncommon disorder in the clinical setting, and its etiology is unknown. The major clinical features of IgG4-RS is a painless, persistent enlargement of the salivary gland, especially the submandibular gland. Periphe-ral blood examination show that IgG4 levels are elevated in the serum of most patients, and their lymphoplasmic cells are infiltrated. In the advanced stage of the disease, tissue lesions can present in various organs of the body. Histopathology is the most reliable diagnostic method. Glucocorticoids are recommended as the primary clinical treatment. Biologics can also be used as targeted therapy at this stage. Based on domestic and international literature, we review herein the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and treatment and prognosis of IgG4-RS to aid the diagnosis, treatment, and subsequent research of the disease.

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Research progress of primary cilia in bone remodelling and reconstruction of temporomandibular joint cartilage under mechanical stress
Qing Xue,Huichuan Qi,Min Hu
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  201-207.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024031
Abstract ( 49 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (780KB) ( 75 )   Save

Tooth movement and temporomandibular joint remodelling during orthodontic treatment are typical biomechanical processes that involve bone remodelling and maintenance of cartilage homeostasis. Primary cilia are mechanoreceptors that widely exist on the surface of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), osteoblasts, osteocytes, chondrocytes, and other cells. Under mechanical stress, primary cilia could promote the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and maintain the mechani-cal sensitivity of osteoblasts. Primary cilia could also promote the deposition of the bone matrix, upregulate the functional activity of osteocytes, and indirectly regulate the activity of osteoclasts. They promote the proliferation, differentiation, and endochondral ossification of chondrocytes by transducing multiple signalling pathways and thus play an important role in bone-cartilage tissue remodelling. This article aims to review the research progress of primary cilia in alveolar bone remodelling and reconstruction of temporomandibular joint cartilage. Relevant molecular mechanisms are discussed. This work provides a reference to further explore the mechanisms of bone and cartilage tissue remodelling during orthodontic treatment.

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Role of advanced glycosylation end-products and their receptors in the progression and treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma
Wenxuan Wang,Yunkun Liu,Bingzhi Li,Nengwen Huang,Zeyu Hou,Jinru Tang,Longjiang Li
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  208-216.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024027
Abstract ( 69 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1306KB) ( 70 )   Save

The molecular mechanisms underlying the occurrence and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are still not fully understood. This topic remains a focal point of research to comprehend the malignant biological characteristics of OSCC and explore targeted therapeutic approaches. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their receptors (RAGE) interact with other receptors in vivo, thereby activating multiple signaling pathways to induce the synthesis of interleukins, growth factors, and cytokine synthesis. Recent studies have shown that the activation of AGE/RAGE-related signaling pathways affects the proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and local recurrence of oral cancer and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced oral cancer. This paper reviews the relationship between AGEs/RAGE and OSCC with the aim of providing potential targets for OSCC treatment.

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Current status of animal model on trigeminal neuralgia
Ketai He,Mingjie Xu,Changhan Zhou,Jinlong Mi,Yibo Li,Lei Liu
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  217-226.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024014
Abstract ( 79 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (828KB) ( 66 )   Save

Trigeminal neuralgia is a common clinical disease in stomatology. It is characterized by severe pain like electric shock, thereby seriously affecting the life and work of patients. Trigeminal neuralgia can be divided into three types with different causes and characteristics. Among them, classical trigeminal neuralgia has the main pathogenesis of mechanical compression, and inflammatory factors also significantly affect this process. Establishing an appropriate animal model of trigeminal neuralgia plays an important role in understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. Such a model can also serve as the experimental methodological basis for studying the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Scho-lars have established various trigeminal neuralgia animal models for different experimental purposes and scenarios. This article reviews the research status of animal experimental models of trigeminal neuralgia.

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Process and progress in the clinical research of minimally invasive non-operative periodontal therapy technology
Yuhong Ma,Lei Zhao
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  227-232.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024022
Abstract ( 124 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF(pc) (737KB) ( 125 )   Save

Periodontitis is one of the main causes of tooth loss. Traditional non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) is the first step of standardizing periodontal sequence therapy. However, the therapeutic effect of NSPT is limited in patients with moderate to severe periodontitis with intrabony defects. The minimally invasive non-surgical periodontal therapy (MINST) was proposed with the development of minimally invasive dental treatment. MINST is the technology of nonsurgical periodontal treatment with minimally invasive operation. This technology can replace periodontal surgery within certain conditions, improve the periodontal clinical parameters of intrabony defects, reduce postoperative pain, and improve the aesthetic and patient satisfaction of the MINST therapy outcome. This study summarizes the progress of the proposal and clinical application of MINST technology, analyzes the effect of the technology on traditional periodontal nonsurgical treatment and minimally invasive periodontal surgical treatment, and summarizes the application progress of this technology combined with other adjuvant treatments (including local medication, enamel matrix proteins, and periodontal endoscopy).

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Management of ventilatory dysfunction associated with posterior pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty
Yanan Li,Bing Shi,Jingtao Li
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  233-240.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024028
Abstract ( 59 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (836KB) ( 58 )   Save

Posterior pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty corrects velopharyngeal insufficiency by mechanically occluding the airway. Speech is improved in sacrifice of partial ventilation, increasing perioperative and long-term airway risks. Effective prevention and intervention of airway complications are critical to patient safety and life quality and cannot be ignored in sequence therapy. However, pharyngeal flap-related airway issues await further clarification. This paper focuses on the epidemiological characteristics, pathological mechanism, evaluation and diagnosis methods, and prevention and treatment of ventilation complications of posterior pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty to provide reference for further optimization of the sequence treatment of cleft lip and palate related to airway problems.

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Application and research progress of various intrusive arches in the orthodontic intrusion of anterior teeth
Jiaping Si,Lü Lin,Sijie Wang,Yu Zhou,Xiaoyan Chen
Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (2):  241-248.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024011
Abstract ( 77 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (1336KB) ( 95 )   Save

Deep overbite of anterior teeth is a common and difficult malocclusion in clinical practice and is often accompanied by different degrees of joint, periodontal, and aesthetic problems. Intrusive arch is one of the main ways to correct deep overbite of anterior teeth in clinical practice. Various types of intrusion arch exist, and indications, clinical effects, side effects, wire bending, and biomechanics differ among different types of intrusive arches. Therefore, in clinical practice, orthodontists should choose an appropriate intrusion arch that caters to the target position and the patient’s dental bone condition and adjusts the size and direction of the intrusion force to achieve the best effect. This article reviews the application and research progress of different types of intrusive arch to provide reference for its implementation in clinical research and clinical practice.

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