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Table of Content

    01 January 2024, Volume 51 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
    Expert Forum
    Restorative space in edentulous patients and the clinical decision of implant restoration
    Tang Chunbo
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  1-9.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024001
    Abstract ( 233 )   HTML ( 32 )   PDF(pc) (5803KB) ( 178 )   Save

    The restoration space should be fully considered in designing the implant restoration for edentulous patients to accommodate the superstructure of implant dentures and prostheses and select the appropriate restoration method. However, no unified standard exists for the evaluation of restoration space in clinical practice. Mechanical or biological complications of implant dentures occur when the restorative space in the mouth does not match the prosthesis design. This study recommends recording the correct jaw relation retained by natural teeth or old dentures before implant treatment in edentulous patients. The complete digital information of the patient’s oral and maxillofacial region can be obtained using digital technology, and a three-dimensional virtual dental patient model can be constructed. A functional and aesthetically oriented implant restoration plan can be designed according to the measured vertical restoration space and horizontal relationship.

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    Oral Oncology
    The new strategies of antimetabolic therapy of cancers based on antiporter of cystine and glutamate
    Wang Miao,Meng Wanrong,Li Longjiang
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  10-20.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024019
    Abstract ( 57 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1904KB) ( 153 )   Save

    Metabolism reprogram is one of the major characteristics of malignant cancer. It promotes survival of tumor cells and launches the malignant progression of cancers under the nutrition-deficient tumor milieu. Several recent studies have revealed that the antiporter of cystine and glutamine, system Xc, is a key target of ferroptosis and also impairs flexibility of tumor metabolism remolding and promotes dependency on glucose. This finding indicates that interfering glucose uptake and glucose metabolism are potential methods of treating system Xc overexpression cancers. This review summarizes the expressional regulation and metabolic functions of system Xc, thereby paving a new avenue for the antimetabolic therapy of cancers.

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    Progress in research into programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 immunotherapy strategies in human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
    Liu Shiyi, Chen Zhong, Zhang Suxin
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  21-27.  DOI: 10.7518/gikq.2024021
    Abstract ( 51 )   PDF(pc) (854KB) ( 120 )   Save

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has become one of the main pathogenic factors of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The expression levels of various immune cells and effector molecules, including programmed death (PD)-1 and programmed death-ligand 1, are higher in HPV-positive HNSCC samples than in HPV-negative samples. Furthermore, patients with HPV-positive HNSCC and high PD-1 or PD-L1 expression showed significantly improved survival. Moreover, patients with HPV-positive HNSCC and on anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy showed hi-gher objective remission rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and other indicators than patients with HPV-negative HNSCCs, suggesting that the former received greater clinical benefits than the latter. In addition, HPV cancer vaccine combined with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, dual pathway inhibitors and other immunotherapy regimens play distinct beneficial roles in HPV-related cancer. Therefore, tailoring immunotherapy to patients based on HPV status is a promising treatment strategy.

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    Present application of digital oral positioning stents in radiotherapy of head and neck tumor
    He Zimu, Li Fenglan
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  28-35.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024018
    Abstract ( 53 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1052KB) ( 113 )   Save

    In radiotherapy, normal tissues are inevitably damaged by radiation. Thus, patients suffering from head and neck tumor often develop serious oral complications, such as radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis, trismus, dysphagia, radiation osteonecrosis of the jaws, and radiation caries. These complications can affect or interrupt the delivery of radiation therapy. Accordingly, they have an immeasurable impact on the quality of patients’ lives after radiotherapy. To reduce the adverse effects of radiotherapy, domestic and foreign scholars have conducted extensive research on oral positioning stents (OPS). Conventional OPS plays a significant role in the prevention of those oral complications, but they have any disadvantages in design, fabrication, promotion, and application. Research on digital OPS has emerged. This work summarizes and analyzes the fabrication process, prevention of oral complications, and radiotherapy setup with digital OPS to improve the research direction and application prospects.

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    Ferroptosis and its implication in oral diseases
    Fu Yu, He Wei, Huang Lan
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  36-44.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024006
    Abstract ( 89 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF(pc) (827KB) ( 145 )   Save

    Ferroptosis is a regulated, iron-dependent form of cell death driven by lipid peroxidation and plays an important role in a variety of diseases. It has been studied in cancer, ischemia/reperfusion injury diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. As an important form of cell death, ferroptosis has received increasing attention in oral disease research. Some advances have been achieved in related studies. Ferroptosis has become an emerging therapeutic target for oral cancer and has been associated with many inflammatory injury diseases. As a chronic inflammatory disease, periodontitis may have some correlation with ferroptosis. This work reviews current findings on ferroptosis to provide a reference for the mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of related oral diseases.

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    Original Articles
    The correlation study between single nucleotide polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor and interleukin-17 and oral lichen planus
    Li Ran,Hu Yue,Zhang Ning,Gao Ruifang,Wang Xiangyu,Ge Xuejun
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  45-51.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024016
    Abstract ( 56 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (3055KB) ( 63 )   Save

    Objective This study aimed to explore the genetic polymorphisms of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin (IL)-17 genes and their correlation with oral lichen planus (OLP). Methods DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of patients in the case (OLP group) and control (non-OLP population) groups were selected as the research subjects. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were attempted in our study, namely, rs5743312 in TLR3, rs121917864 in TLR2, and five others (rs4711998, rs3819024, rs8193036, rs3748067, and rs17878530) in IL-17A. High resolution melting curve analysis was used to detect the gene polymorphism of PCR products in peripheral blood cells and compared with DNA sequencing. The correlation between polymorphic sites and the occurrence of OLP was statistically analyzed. Results We found that rs5743312 (TLR3) and rs3819024 (IL-17A) had a statistically significant association with OLP (P<0.05). The remaining five SNPs cannot be tested for association with OLP. Conclusion rs5743312 (TLR3) and rs-3819024 (IL-17A) may contribute to the initiation of OLP.

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    Influences of long noncoding RNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 22 on the cell proliferation, invasion and migration of oral squamous carcinoma cells by regulating microRNA-27b-3p
    Zhou Jinkuo,Zhang Jinhong,Shi Xiaojing,Liu Guangshun,Jiang Lei,Liu Qianfeng
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  52-59.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024013
    Abstract ( 54 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (4308KB) ( 97 )   Save

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the influences of long noncoding RNA small nucleolar RNA host gene (SNHG) 22 on the proliferation, invasion, and migration of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells by regulating microRNA (miR)-27b-3p. Methods Cancer tissue and paracancerous tissue specimens of 52 OSCC patients were collected. Human normal oral keratinocytes (HOK) and three kinds of human OSCC cells (CAL-27, SCC-25, and HSC-3) were cultured in vitro. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of SNHG22 and miR-27b-3p in cancer tissues, adjacent tissues, HOK cells, and three kinds of OSCC cells. SCC-25 cells were transfected and separated into the following groups: control (no transfection), si-SNHG22, si-NC, miR-27b-3p inhibitor, inhibitor-NC, si-SNHG22+inhibitor-NC, and si-SNHG22+miR-27b-3p inhibitor. The proliferation of SCC-25 cells in each group was detected by cell-counting kit 8 method, and proliferation index (PI) was detected by flow cytometry. Transwell assay was applied to detect the invasion of SCC-25 cells in each group. Scratch-area healing experiment was applied to detect the migration of SCC-25 cells in each group. Dual-luciferase experiment was applied to verify the targeting relationship between SNHG22 and miR-27b-3p. Results Compared with adjacent tissues, SNHG22 expression in OSCC cancer tissues significantly increased, and the expression of miR-27b-3p significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with HOK cells, SNHG22 expression significantly increased in CAL-27 cells, SCC-25 cells, and HSC-3 cells, and the expression of miR-27b-3p significantly decreased. The expression in SCC-25 cells differed the most from that in HOK cells (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the SCC-25 cell-proliferation rate, PI, invasion number, and scratch-area healing rate in the si-SNHG22 group decreased significantly (P<0.05). The SCC-25 cell-proliferation rate, PI, invasion number, and scratch-area healing rate in the miR-27b-3p inhibitor group increased significantly (P<0.05); compared with the si-SNHG22 group. The SCC-25 cell-proliferation rate, PI, invasion number, and scratch-area healing rate in the si-SNHG22+miR-27b-3p inhibitor group increased significantly (P<0.05). Dual-luciferase experiments showed that SNHG22 had a targeting relationship with miR-27b-3p. Conclusion SNHG22 was highly expressed in OSSC, whereas miR-27b-3p was lowly expressed. SNHG22 may promote the proliferation, invasion, and migration of SCC-25 cells through sponge miR-27b-3p. The SNHG22/miR-27b-3p axis may be a new diagnostic and therapeutic target for OSCC.

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    Effects of circular RNA hsa_circ_0085576 on cell migration and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma by regulating the microRNA-498/B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 axis
    Li Liheng,Wang Rui,Wang Xiaoming,Zhang Zhiyi,Zhang Xuan,An Feng,Wang Qin,Zhang Fan
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  60-67.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024007
    Abstract ( 47 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (2750KB) ( 67 )   Save

    Objective This study aims to explore the effects of circular RNA hsa_circ_0085576 on cell migration and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods Circular RNA hsa_circ_0085576, microRNA-498 (miR-498), and B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1) in the cells of OSCC were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analyses. CCK-8, scratch test, Transwell test, qRT-PCR, and Western blot were used to detect the proliferation, migration, and invasion ability of SCC-15 cells and the expression of related genes and proteins. Results The expression of hsa_circ_0085576 and BMI-1 in the cells of OSCC was upregulated, and that of miR-498 was downregulated (P<0.05). The proliferative activity, scratch healing rate, number of invasive cells, and expression levels of cyclinD1 and vimentin proteins of SCC-15 cells were downregulated, whereas the expression levels of miR-498 and E-cadherin proteins were upregulated (P<0.05). Inhibition of miR-498 expression weakened the inhibitory effect of downregulating hsa_circ_0085576 on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OSCC cells. Upregulation of BMI-1 expression attenuated the inhibitory effect of overexpressed miR-498 on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OSCC cells. Conclusion Downregulation of hsa_circ_0085576 expression inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OSCC cells by activating the miR-498/BMI-1 axis.

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    Reviews
    Research progress of mitophagy in the onset and development of periodontal disease
    Abulaiti Guliqihere,Qin Xu,Zhu Guangxun
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  68-73.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024010
    Abstract ( 83 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (769KB) ( 158 )   Save

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to the destruction of periodontal tissues caused by dental plaque biofilm. It ischaracterized by gingival inflammation and progressive destruction of alveolar bone. Mitophagy is a major mechanism that regulates cellular homeostasis by selectively eliminating dysfunctional or damaged mitochondria through autophagy, which plays a critical role in the mitochondrial quality and quantity control. Recent studies indicated that mitophagy participates in the development of periodontal diseases by inhibiting periodontal inflammation, decreasing cell apoptosis, and promoting osteogenic differentiation in periodontal ligament stem cells. Moreover, it provides a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of periodontal disease. Therefore, this review summarizes the progress of research on the definition of mitophagy, its molecular mechanism, and the role of mitophagy in the onset and development of periodontal disease.

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    Research progress on the antibacterial mechanism of oral local anesthetics
    Tan Yongzhen,Liang Xinhua
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  74-81.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024009
    Abstract ( 60 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (804KB) ( 107 )   Save

    Local anesthetic is a kind of drug commonly used in oral outpatient operations. It has anesthetic and analgesic effects, and it can alleviate the pain of patients and facilitate treatment. Many studies have shown that local anesthetics have antibacterial effects, and they can effectively inhibit the growth of various bacteria and fungi. In this paper, the antibacterial effects of local anesthetics commonly used in dentistry (lidocaine, bupivacaine, ropivacaine, articaine, etc.) were summarized, and their molecular mechanisms were discussed (including changes in cell wall and membrane permeability, direct damage to cell membranes, inhibition of protein and genetic material synthesis, inhibition of cell respiration, etc.). The interaction with other drugs (antibiotics, epinephrine, opioids, etc.) also were studied. This work will be helpful in the selection of local anesthetics in oral clinics and the prevention and control of infection.

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    A review of pulp calcification and its treatment methods
    Huang Xin,Xu Xiaojie,Zhang Ronghua,Zhao Yuan
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  82-90.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024008
    Abstract ( 137 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF(pc) (1125KB) ( 166 )   Save

    Pulp calcification is an ageing change or pathologic reaction of pulp tissue. When endodontic or periapical disease is accompanied with pulp calcification, root canal therapy is the primary treatment modality. However, calcified root canals are usually hard to prepare, which can easily lead to complications such as root canal lateral penetration, step formation, and instrument separation, resulting in a high rate of treatment failure and causing great difficulties for clinicians. The success rate of calcified root canal treatment has increased significantly with the application and promotion of micro-ultrasound and guided endodontics in calcified root canal treatment. This article summarizes the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment strategies of pulp calcification based on several literature reviews to provide appropriate treatment stra-tegies and protocols for dental clinicians.

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    Research progress on the risk factors of orthodontically induced enamel demineralization
    Wang Nannan,He Hong,Hua Fang
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  91-98.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024003
    Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (851KB) ( 112 )   Save

    During orthodontic treatment, the existence of orthodontic appliances and residual adhesives, as well as the resultant difficulty in oral hygiene, can lead to enamel demineralization, which is one of the most common side effects of orthodontics. Orthodontic enamel demineralization is often manifested as chalky spots on the labial surface of teeth, which can not only negatively affect dental appearance and reduce orthodontic patients’ satisfaction but also result in ca-ries and jeopardize oral health in severe cases. Improving our understanding of enamel demineralization’s risk factors and phenotypic characteristics is crucial to promote precise prevention and control of orthodontic enamel demineralization. This review aims to summarize the recent literature regarding risk factors of orthodontic enamel demineralization. It focuses on the association between orthodontic enamel demineralization and tooth position, oral hygiene, dietary habits, treatment time, type of appliances, changes in microflora, and 6-n-propylthiouracil individual taste sensitivity.

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    Research progress on the mechanism and treatment of pain after oral implants
    Han Chong,He Dongning,Yu Feiyan,Wu Dongchao
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  99-106.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024002
    Abstract ( 67 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (778KB) ( 91 )   Save

    With the rapid development of dental implant technology, the use of oral implants to replace missing teeth has gradually become a routine restorative modality in patients with dentition defects or dentition loss. However, dental implant surgery is an invasive treatment, and the postoperative pain of surgery after implant placement occurs despite accurate evaluation and careful treatment. Postoperative pain will affect the daily life of patients, such as language communication, chewing, and swallowing, and in serious cases, even cause medical accidents. With the popularity of implant surgery, numerous patients may suffer from post-implant pain in the future. In particular, neuropathic pain after dental implants remains difficult to treat, and the efficacy of therapeutic drugs is often inaccurate, which is related to various adverse effects. This article introduces the related mechanisms of pain after dental implants, gives an overview of the treatment of pain after dental implants, and proposes potential targets for the future treatment of neuropathic pain after dental implants in the context of current research hotspots. This paper aims to provide new ideas for conducting relevant clinical studies.

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    Applications and research progress of biodegradable magnesium-based materials in craniomaxillofacial surgery
    Chang Xinnan,Liu Lei
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  107-115.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024004
    Abstract ( 68 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (843KB) ( 139 )   Save

    As a new generation of bone-implant materials, biodegradable magnesium-based materials show potential application in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Compared with traditional bone-implant materials, magnesium-based materials have excellent degradability, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and osteogenic-promoting ability. The degradation of Mg implants leads to the production of magnesium ions, which have antiapoptosis and anti-inflammatory functions. Magnesium ions can also promote the healing of fractures and bone defects. Many studies have applied biodegradable magnesium-based materials to the internal fixation of craniomaxillofacial fractures, bone-substitute applications, guided bone regeneration, drug delivery, and implant surface coating. Results reveal that this kind of materials can provide stable support for bone healing and play a suitable role in osteogenic promoting. Magnesium-based materials also demonstrate potential in other fields, such as dental-tissue engineering and promotion of soft-tissue healing. All these findings indicate the importance of magnesium-based materials.

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    Progress in the management of marginal velopharyngeal incompetence
    Mao Qirong,Yin Heng,Li Jingtao
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (1):  116-124.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024017
    Abstract ( 54 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1145KB) ( 27 )   Save

    Marginal velopharngeal inadequacy (MVPI) is a particular state of postoperative velopharyngeal function after cleft-palate repair. Patients with MVPI demonstrate a unique pattern in velopharyngeal closure and speech performance compared with more evident velopharyngeal insufficiency. Currently, researchers disagree over the pathological mechanism and diagnositic criteria for MVPI. Evidence suggesting the selection of surgical or nonsurgical intervention to MVPI is scarce, and no standard MVPI management protocol is available. By summarizing literature relevant to MVPI management, this review aims to identify aspects of MVPI requiring further investigation and to provide guidance to the exploration of rational evidence-based MVPI management protocol.

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