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Table of Content

    01 July 2023, Volume 50 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Expert Forum
    Key points of evidence-based practice for the Class Ⅱ cavity composite resin restoration
    Xue Jing, Yang Jing.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  375-387.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023061
    Abstract ( 1430 )   HTML ( 215 )   PDF(pc) (1071KB) ( 1179 )   Save

    Proximal caries are common clinical problems. Restoring proximal caries after cavity preparation with Class Ⅱ cavity restoration is a routine clinical procedure. The composite resin filling has become the preferred method for Class Ⅱ cavity restoration. With the development of composite resins, bonding techniques and matrix systems, the concepts and technologies of Class Ⅱ composite resin restorations have made various new progresses. Based on the latest li-terature evidence, this article elaborates on the key points of Class Ⅱ cavity composite resin restoration operation from eight aspects, including stress analysis, field isolation, cavity preparation, pulp protection, selection and placement of matrix system, bonding protocol, filling protocol, and finishing and polishing, to provide evidence-based medical guidelines for clinical practice of Class Ⅱ cavity composite resin restoration.

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    Cariology and Endodontics
    Effect and research progress on root canal infection management of regenerative endodontic procedure in immature permanent teeth
    Wu Sijia,Shu Chang,Wang Yang,Wang Yuan,Deng Shuli,Wang Huiming.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  388-394.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023053
    Abstract ( 1350 )   HTML ( 47 )   PDF(pc) (823KB) ( 641 )   Save

    Root canal infection management is a crucial step in regenerative endodontic procedure (REP), which include root canal irrigation and intracanal medicaments. Various factors, such as residual microorganisms or the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigants and drugs, affect the outcomes of REP. Scholars should search for an optimum infection management remedy to acquire sufficient antimicrobial efficacy and proper environment for tissue regeneration. The development of novel canal irrigants and irrigation techniques and the exploration of novel antibacterial scaffold can alleviate the adverse effects of REP. This article intends to discuss the influences of infection management on REP and elucidate its promising advances.

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    Reduction of the risk of caries after interproximal enamel reduction
    Wang Gang,Chen Zhuo.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  395-400.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023046
    Abstract ( 987 )   HTML ( 52 )   PDF(pc) (754KB) ( 383 )   Save

    Interproximal enamel reduction is a procedure where a small amount of enamel is removed from the ad-jacent surfaces of the teeth to relieve mild to moderate dental crowding or to improve the shape of the teeth. However, the increased roughness and decreased mineralization of enamel after the procedure and the hidden anatomical location lead to a significantly higher caries risk and a tendency to develop chalky lesions and even caries. Therefore, it is important to control the risk of caries on the enamel surface after interproximal enamel reduction. At present, there are several clinical measures to reduce the risk of caries after interproximal enamel reduction, including reasonable selection of interproximal enamel reduction instruments, immediate surface polishing, application of fluoride products, resin infiltration repair, and remineralization drug repair. This article reviews the latest research and therapeutic effects of these measures, providing a basis and new ideas for clinical treatment and basic research.

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    Research and application of electrolyzed-oxidizing water in the field of root canal treatment
    Gao Yutian,Su Qin
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  401-406.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023075
    Abstract ( 1065 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF(pc) (752KB) ( 381 )   Save

    Root canal therapy is now the most commonly used and effective means for the treatment of pulp and periapical disease. Effective root canal irrigation is important to successful root canal treatment. Electrolyzed-oxidizing water is a kind of water with high oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), low pH, containing a certain concentration of effective chlorine produced by chlorine salt electrolysis, which has strong oxidation ability and can rapidly kill microorganisms. Compared with sodium hypochlorite solution which is the most commonly used root canal irrigant in clinical practice, it is non-toxic to human body, non-irritating to skin and oral mucosa, and even has the ability to remove the smear layer in root canal. These advantages make it valued by scholars at home and abroad, and is hopeful as an ideal root canal irrigant. In this paper, the preparation and preservation, characteristics as a root canal irrigant, application prospects and existing problems of electrolyzed-oxidizing water are reviewed.

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    Oral Oncology
    Research progress on the application of near infrared fluorescence probe in the diagnosis of oral cancer
    Jiang Yueying,He Yutian,Li Ting,Zhou Ronghui.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  407-413.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023068
    Abstract ( 1040 )   PDF(pc) (978KB) ( 431 )   Save

    Fluorescence imaging has attracted much attention in cancer diagnosis and drug targeting due to its advantages of low invasion, high sensitivity and real-time detection. Autofluorescence can be used to diagnose cancerous tissue by the difference of fluorescence generated by the same wavelength excitation light between pathological tissue and normal tissue, or to trace cancerous tissue by the fluorescence of the drug itself. However, the specificity and sensitivity of these fluorescence diagnostic techniques are poor. Compared with the existing fluorescence diagnosis methods, near-infrared fluorescence diagnosis technology is less interfered by background signals and can image deeper tissues, which can effectively make up for the deficiency of autofluorescence examination, and has important significance for the clinical diagnosis of oral cancer. Based on this, this paper reviews the construction methods of the first and second near-infrared fluorescent window imaging probes applied in the field of oral cancer diagnosis, and further discusses its research progress in the labeling of oral cancer, providing a reference for the real-time and accurate diagnosis of oral cancer.

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    Advances in the effects of mechanical environment on the biological behaviors and mechanism of head and neck cancer
    Sun Xiaoqian, Zhang Jun
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  414-418.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023047
    Abstract ( 1061 )   HTML ( 193 )   PDF(pc) (691KB) ( 317 )   Save

    With the gradual understanding of the mechanical properties of tumor extracellular matrix, research that focuses on tumor biological behavior by examining the mechanical environment in two- and three-dimensional culture conditions is also increasing. There are various mechanical stimulations in the extracellular matrix of the body. These mecha-nical signals can be converted into biochemical signals, changing the microenvironment of tissue cells and affecting their metabolism to drive the development of tumors. Therefore, in this paper, we review the effects of three common mechanical forces, including tension, compression, and fluid shear stress, on the biological behaviors of proliferation, migration, and invasion in head and neck cancer and related mechanisms. The aim is to gain a better understanding of the key role of mechanical environment in head and neck cancer.

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    Poorly differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland after renal transplantation: a case report
    Zhao Lingfan, Zhou Yang, Ye Xinxin, Zhang Qiang.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  419-422.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023065
    Abstract ( 1216 )   HTML ( 162 )   PDF(pc) (3201KB) ( 198 )   Save

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is one of the most common malignant tumors of salivary gland, and poorly differentiated MEC is a highly malignant tumor, relatively rare. Because of the long-term use of immunosuppressants after renal transplantation, renal transplant recipients are more likely to develop malignant tumors than the general population, of which skin cancer is the most common, and salivary gland tumors after renal transplantation are rare. Here we report a case of poorly differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland in a male patient 4 years after renal transplantation. After receiving surgical resection treatment, the patient reached the discharge standard and discharged smoothly. After a follow-up of 21 months, there was no recurrence of the lesion.

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    Original Articles
    Finite element analysis of IPS e.maxCAD and Lava Ultimate materials with different thickness in occlusal veneer
    Huang Yihuan,Li Weihang,Ma Dian,Chen Jin,Qian Jie,Li Xudong.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  423-432.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023063
    Abstract ( 236 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF(pc) (2847KB) ( 383 )   Save

    Objective This study aimed to compare the stress distribution in the left maxillary first molar restored with an occlusal veneer made of two kinds of materials with different thickness and provide a theoretical reference for the clinical application of occlusal veneer. Methods Micro CT data of the left maxillary first molar were extracted and four finite element models of the left maxillary first molar with an occlusal veneer of different thicknesses (0.6 and 1.0 mm) and different materials [IPS e.maxCAD (LD) and Lava Ultimate (LU)] were established, respectively, LD0.6, LD1.0, LU0.6, and LU1.0. Then, the axial load F1 and lateral load F2 of the maxillary first molar were simulated. The maximum principal stress (MaxPS) and minimum principal stress (MinPS) of occlusal veneer, tooth tissue and adhesive layer were recorded under two kinds of loads. The MaxPS and MinPS were quantitatively analyzed by percentage quantification and the failure probability of the models was calculated using Weibull analysis. Results 1) Only the enamel reached the tensile strength of the material. 2) In each group, the MaxPS and the absolute value of MinPS of occlusal veneer of LD-restored teeth were significantly higher than that of LU-restored teeth, with variations of 11.4%- 34.7% and from -18.2% to -9.5%, respectively. However, the MaxPS (from -187.1% to 2.4%) and the absolute value of MinPS (from -1.4% to 16.9%) of tooth tissue and adhesive layer of LD-restored teeth were lower than those of LU-restored teeth. When the restoration thickness increased from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, the MaxPS and the absolute value of MinPS of occlusal veneer of LD-restored teeth significantly decreased, with variations from 20.0% to 21.0% and from -5.7% to -3.9%, respectively, whereas that of LU-restored teeth did not change. 3) The failure probability of overall models of F1 and F2 was LU0.6>LU1.0>LD0.6> LD1.0 and LU0.6>LU1.0>LD1.0>LD0.6, respectively. Moreover, the failure probability of F1 was lower than that of F2. Conclusion 1) Compared with LU, occlusal veneer made by LD takes on more stress to protect the dental tissue and adhesive layer. 2) The thickness has a significant effect on the stress distribution of LD, but not on LU.

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    Efficacy of narrow-spectrum intense pulsed light in the treatment of scar after surgery of primary unilateral cleft lip
    Tang Xiaojuan, Liu Xiaojing, Sun Yongheng, Zhang Jingxia
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  433-437.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023066
    Abstract ( 204 )   HTML ( 152 )   PDF(pc) (1578KB) ( 232 )   Save

    Objective To observe the effectiveness and safety of narrow-spectrum intense pulsed light (DPL) in the treatment of scar after surgery of primary unilateral cleft lip. Methods From September 2019 to June 2022, 56 children with primary unilateral cleft lip treated by surgery were selected. According to random number table, they were divided into group A and group B respectively, with 28 children in each group. Both groups began to use silicone gel drug to smear the scar on the second day after surgery until 6 months post-operation. Group B also taken three times DPL treatment at 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-operation. The scar was evaluated with Vancouver scar scale (VSS) before DPL treatment, after the last DPL treatment, 4 months after operation, and 6 months after operation. At the final follow-up, satisfaction questionnaire was used to evaluate the satisfaction of parents. The treatment-related adverse events during the DPL treatment pe-riod and within 1 month after the last treatment were recorded. The data was statistically analyzed. Results The difference of VSS scores between the two groups before DPL treatment was no significant (P>0.05). After the last DPL treatment, the VSS score of group B was lower than that of group A, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). At 4 months and 6 months post-operation, the VSS score of group B was lower than that of group A, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). At the final follow-up, 15 (53.6%) of group A were very satisfied with the efficacy, 10 (35.7%) were satisfied, and 3 (10.7%) were average; 24 (85.7%) of group B were very satisfied with the efficacy, and 4 (14.3%) were satisfied. Two patients in group B had transient pigmentation after treatment. Conclusion DPL can effectively treat the scar after primary unilateral cleft lip surgery, with high patient satisfaction and less adverse events.

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    Postoperative infection control effect of povidone iodine and chlorhexidine: a systematic review and analysis
    Wang Lüya,Zhang Jingxin,Lin Jie.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  438-444.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023049
    Abstract ( 534 )   HTML ( 27 )   PDF(pc) (2223KB) ( 213 )   Save

    Objective This study aimed to compare the effect of chlorhexidine and povidone iodine in controlling oral postoperative infection through systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods By combining free-word retrieval and subject retrieval, the databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang were retrieved. The retrieval period was from the establishment of databases to May 2022. After literature screening, data ex-traction, and quality evaluation were independently completed, Review Manager 5.3 software was used for the meta-analysis. Results A total of 12 articles were included, and the risk of bias was found to be moderate. The meta-analysis showed that the control effect of chlorhexidine and povidone iodine after oral surgery was similar, without significant difference (P>0.05). However, the subjective feeling of using povidone iodine was better than that of chlorhexidine, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.000 01). Conclusion No difference was observed in the infection control effect between chlorhexidine and povidone iodine after oral surgery. Povidone iodine had better subjective feeling than chlorhexidine.

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    Case Report
    Gorham-Stout disease in maxillofacial bone: a case report and literature review
    Wu Yifan,Lu Hao,Liu Shengwen,Xu Wanlin,Yang Wenjun.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  445-451.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023051
    Abstract ( 1311 )   HTML ( 35 )   PDF(pc) (2448KB) ( 302 )   Save

    Gorham-Stout disease (GSD), also known as massive osteolysis or vanishing bone disease (VBD), is a spontaneous, progressive disease of bone resorption characterized by lymphoid tissue and vascular hyperplasia. GSD does not differ in age, sex, or race and can involve single or multiple bones, but rarely occurs in the maxillofacial region. However, its cause remains controversial, and there is still no unified standard for the evaluation of treatment options and efficacy. In this paper, we report a case of GSD with recurrence in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Onco-logy, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. In addition, we briefly review the etiology, clinicopathological features, diagnostic points, and treatment of GSD to further enhance our understan-ding of GSD that occurs in the maxillofacial bone.

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    A case of rare mandible and lower lip duplication and literature review
    Wang Chunyi,Li Jingtao.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  452-456.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023074
    Abstract ( 948 )   HTML ( 29 )   PDF(pc) (2084KB) ( 262 )   Save

    Duplication deformity in the oral and maxillofacial region is an extremely rare birth defect. Oral duplication demonstrates significant phenotype variation and must be managed with individualized protocol based on the extent of soft and bony tissue involvement and affected physiological functions. Here we report a case of oral duplication involving unilateral mandible and lower lip, with the deformity features and primary surgical treatment described and literature co-vering its etiology and management reviewed.

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    Reviews
    Research progress on the role of extravascular fibrinogen deposition in mucosal diseases
    Yang Xiaoyu,Yuan Quan.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  457-462.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023060
    Abstract ( 249 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF(pc) (775KB) ( 390 )   Save

    Fibrinogen is a member of coagulation factors synthesized by liver, and it plays an important role in hemostasis. However, in the case of increased vascular permeability, fibrinogen extravasates and accumulates outside blood vessels. Recognized by integrin receptors on the cell surface, extravascular deposited fibrinogen acts as an immune regulator by mediating leukocyte engagement and activation. Current studies suggest the close association of fibrinogen extravascular deposition with a series of severe mucosal diseases, including oral lichen planus (OLP), oral leukoplakia (OLK), pe-riodontitis, conjunctivitis, and inflammation of digestive tract and lung. This association is indicated to be a potential target for clinical therapy. This article reviewed the recent research progress regarding the relationship between extravascular fibrinogen deposition and mucosal immunity to provide motivations for the development of novel therapeutic methods.

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    Research progress on the stemness maintenance of dental pulp stem cells
    Yu Lerong,Li Xiangwei,Ai Hong
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  463-471.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023064
    Abstract ( 217 )   HTML ( 45 )   PDF(pc) (789KB) ( 479 )   Save

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a unique population of odontogenic undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells with strong self-renewal ability and multi-lineage differentiation potential existing in the dental pulp tissue. They could differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, adipocytes, nerve cells, muscle cells, and hepatocytes under specific stimulation conditions, providing a novel clinical idea for their application in the treatment of various tissue defects and repairs. However, in the process of passage and expansion in vitro, DPSCs inevitably exhibit decreased stemness, such as slowed proliferation rate, cell senescence, and pluripotency decline, which seriously impede their application in tissue engineering. How to overcome these deficiencies and maintain the stemness of DPSCs have received extensive attention in tissue engineering research. In this article, the research progress on the significance, methods (including low-temperature preservation, culture dimensions, hypoxic environment, application of cytokines, etc.), and molecular mechanisms of stemness maintenance of DPSCs was reviewed.

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    Application of microneedles in stomatology
    Fan Lin,Sun Jiang.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  472-478.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023070
    Abstract ( 1262 )   HTML ( 49 )   PDF(pc) (1290KB) ( 462 )   Save

    Microneedles (MN) are transdermal drug delivery devices that can break through the oral mucosal barrier to deliver drugs into the body circulation through the oral and maxillofacial veins to exert drug effects. In addition, microneedles, when applied to the oral mucosa, can stimulate the body to immediately initiate a wound healing cascade response, stimulate the release of a variety of growth factors, promote vascular renewal and collagen and elastin synthesis to achieve tissue regeneration. Numerous studies have shown that microneedling is safe, painless, minimally invasive, and highly effective in drug delivery. At present, microneedling has been widely used in the fields of pharmacy and dermatology, and this paper reviews the application of microneedling in dentistry.

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    Research progress on the postoperative inferior alveolar neurosensory disturbance
    Liu Yuntong,Liu Chang,Gao Lichao,Luo Yuxue,Cao Yubin,Hua Chengge.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  479-484.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023071
    Abstract ( 1262 )   HTML ( 41 )   PDF(pc) (763KB) ( 556 )   Save

    Neurosensory disturbance (NSD) is a common complication after mandibular orthognathic surgery, mandi-bular posterior teeth implant surgery and mandibularthird molar extraction. Although in most cases the incidence is low, some patients suffer fromobvious discomfortin a long term. Clinicians and patients have paid great attention to this pro-blem. NSD of the inferior alveolar is often manifested as hypoesthesia and abnormal sensation, and sometimes hyperesthesia of the chin and lips on the surgical side, as well as discomfort of the mandibular dentition on the affected side. Most patients can recovery within 6 months after the occurrence of NSD, whereas a small number of patients were reported failed to recover from disturbance after 6 months or even longer. This article attempts to review symptoms and prognostic characteristics during NSD of the inferior alveolar nerve after different types of operations, and try to analyze the differences and correlations among them.

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    Research progress on preparation forms for the margin of monolithic zirconia crowns in posterior teeth
    Wang Xiao-chen,Wang Jian.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  485-490.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023067
    Abstract ( 1372 )   HTML ( 52 )   PDF(pc) (914KB) ( 593 )   Save

    Zirconia is the most widely used high-strength ceramic material in recent years. Monolithic crowns made from second-generation zirconia have the advantage of being aesthetic and solid enough to withstand the masticatory pressure of posterior teeth even at a thickness of 0.5 mm. These crowns are therefore widely used in posterior full crown restoration. The margin of the crowns can be prepared using knife edge, chamfer edge, and shoulder edge. The margin preparation differs from that of glass-ceramic crowns due to the high mechanical properties of monolithic zirconia crowns, but a standard preparation procedure is not yet available. This review aims to summarize the margin preparation forms for posterior monolithic zirconia crowns and discuss the stress distribution, mechanical properties, marginal adaptation and effects on the abutment and periodontal tissues of different margin preparation forms. Results provide a clinical practice re-ference for the margin preparation of posterior monolithic zirconia crowns.

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    Research progress on the application of machine learning in dental implantology
    Zhu Keshi,Liao Anqi,Yu Youcheng.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (4):  491-498.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023069
    Abstract ( 1264 )   HTML ( 42 )   PDF(pc) (864KB) ( 388 )   Save

    In recent years, artificial intelligence has been gradually changing the traditional medical industry, and machine learning is the main approach to realize it. In aspect of dental implantation, it can assist doctors in their daily diagnosis and treatment, including intelligent recognition of imaging data, implant scheme optimization, automatic robot and so on. It is the future of dental implantation. This paper summarizes the research progress of machine learning in dental implantation and looks forward to its intellectualization in the future.

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