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Table of Content

    01 September 2023, Volume 50 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Expert Forum
    Introducing a novel digital articulation workflow with high precision
    Liu Yang,Yin Deqiang
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  499-505.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023084
    Abstract ( 1658 )   HTML ( 85 )   PDF(pc) (5509KB) ( 617 )   Save

    The occlusion and the mandible position are interrelated within a constantly changing balance. Alterations in occlusion can lead to changes in the mandible position, and vice versa. In clinical work, this balance can be disrupted due to changes in the bite, resulting in various corresponding manifestations; it can be rebuilt to achieve the therapeutic purpose by articulation. Given the limitation of tools, traditional interventions produce large systematic errors when adjusting the occlusal position, resulting in unstable clinical treatment effects with difficulties in operations. With the help of a no-vel digital workflow, a personalized fine digital occlusion model can be built based on the patient’s CT data and digital dental cast. Precise articulation is then entitled, with the previous systematic error eliminated. The clinical outcome is enhanced, and the treatment efficiency is improved. In addition, digitalization can standardize the clinical operation process, reduce the skill demand, and make remote diagnosis and treatment planning possible in near future.

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    Oral Oncology
    Differentiation of pleomorphic adenoma and adenolymphoma of parotid gland by CT morphological features, gender and radiomics
    Yu Dongyang,Li Shaodong,Han Lei,Shan Ben,Liu Yong,Zhao Zhengyu
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  506-513.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023090
    Abstract ( 235 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF(pc) (2053KB) ( 373 )   Save

    Objective This study aimed to explore the differential application of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and adenolymphoma (AL) in parotid gland on the basis of the morphological characteristics of CT plain scan and gender combined with radiomic model. Methods The morphological features of 56 cases of PA and 49 cases of AL confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The morphological characteristics of shape, boundary, cystic degeneration, multiple occurrence, and location of the tumors were observed and analyzed. Six kinds of radiologic features of tumors in CT plain scan images were extracted and analyzed, including gray histogram, absolute gradient, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, autoregressive model, gray-level run length matrix, and wavelet transform. They were used to screen the statistically significant radiomic characteristic parameters between groups. The radial basis function kernel (RBFK), polynomial kernel (PK), and linear kernel (LK) of the support vector machine (SVM) classification model were established for the screened radiomic features. A joint model combined with gender and morphological features was also established. The receiver operator characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of classification models and joint model. Results A total of 12 features were screened out from 287 radiomic feature parameters to establish classification models. The classification model with RBFK as core had the highest diagnostic efficiency, and the corresponding sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve (AUC) were 90.2%, 82.5%, 89.6%, and 0.883, respectively. PA was more common in women, whereas AL was more common in men. AL was more prone to multiple and cystic degeneration than PA (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of boundary, shape, and the location of the tumor (P>0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and AUC of the combined model based on the radiomic characteristics of RBFK, gender, and morphological characteristics (multiple and cystic changes) were 95.1%, 87.6%, 92.8%, and 0.963, respectively. Conclusion The combination of morphological characteristics based on radiomics characteristics, gender and morphological characteristics could effectively distinguish PA and AL before operation.

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    Progress of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis from oral squamous cell carcinoma
    Liu Jianglong, Tuerdi Maimaitituxun
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  514-520.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023088
    Abstract ( 154 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (773KB) ( 250 )   Save

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common pathological type of oral cancer and is one of the diseases that seriously endanger human oral health. It is characterized by a high degree of local aggressiveness and the occurrence of cervical lymph node metastases. Conventional ultrasound is a common clinical examination method for the diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is an ultrasound imaging tool that can evaluate microcirculatory perfusion in lymph nodes in real time for the visualization of blood flow in lymph nodes and the diagnosis of benign and malignant lymph nodes using qualitative and quantitative parameters. With the development and popularity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound, it has been increasingly applied in the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis from oral squamous cell carcinoma. In this work, we searched relevant studies published in domestic and international data-bases and reviewed the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis from oral squamous cell carcinoma the detection of sentinel lymph node and the imaging with nano-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasound, in order to provide a rapid, economical, and reliable diagnostic method for clinical practice.

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    Research progress on the sentinel lymph nodes in the detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
    Li Yijun, Xu Ziang, Li Yi.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  521-527.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023072
    Abstract ( 114 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (789KB) ( 264 )   Save

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the head and neck. Neck lymph node metastasis is a significant prognostic factor, and accurate detection of neck lymph node metastasis plays a major role in surgical and adjuvant treatment planning for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Sentinel lymph nodes can accurately detect and assess neck metastases and unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. Currently, the blue dye method is still predominantly used in clinical practice. In recent years, with the development of near-infrared fluorescence technology and other techniques, many studies have focused on the accuracy of the new technique and the combined application of multiple techniques for the assessment of anterior lymph node metastasis. In this article, we will review the detection and progress of sentinel lymph nodes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, aiming to provide ideas for new methods of clinical detection.

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    Original Articles
    Cone beam computed tomography study of maxillary sinus volume and oropharyngeal airway volume with diffe-rent vertical skeletal faces in adult skeletal Class Ⅱ patients
    Liu Panming,Li Zhengze,Li Junhe,Cui Shuxia.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  528-537.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023062
    Abstract ( 144 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (3326KB) ( 332 )   Save

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the differences in maxillary sinus volume (MSV) and oropharyngeal airway volume with different vertical osseous faces in adult skeletal Class Ⅱ patients and explore the correlation between MSV and oropharyngeal airway. Methods A total of 90 adult patients with skeletal type Ⅱ were selected, and their age and gender were strictly matched. Using Mimics 21.0 software, 3D reconstruction of bilateral maxillary sinuses and oropharyngeal airways was performed on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of all samples, and their volumes were calculated. SPSS 21.0 software was used for statistical analysis to compare the differences between MSV and oropharyngeal airway volume in different vertical bone profiles and genders and analyze the correlation between MSV and oropharyngeal airway volume. Results The average MSV of adult skeletal Class Ⅱ patients was (18 360.42±3 747.41) mm3, and there was no significant difference between the left and right MSV groups; males were significantly larger than females, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05); in the vertical bone surface type grouping, the group was significantly larger than the average and low angle group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01), the average angle group was greater than the low angle group, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The average oropharyngeal airway volume of adult skeletal Class Ⅱ patients was (17 517.80±6 056.33) mm3; males were significantly larger than females, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01); from the high angle group, the average angle group to the low angle group, the oropharyngeal airway volume gradually increased, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). MSV was negatively correlated with oropharyngeal airway volume, and the correlation coefficient was -0.458 (P<0.01). Conclusion In adult patients with Class Ⅱ skeletal malocclusion, those with large mandibular plane angles had larger MSV and smaller oropharyngeal airway volume, and there was a significant negative correlation between MSV and oropharyngeal airway volume.

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    Meta-analysis of dynamic navigation versus static navigation in the accuracy of implant surgery
    Gong Jiaming,Zhao Ruimin,Pan Hongwei,Lang Xin,Yu Zhanhai,Li Jianxue
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  538-551.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023076
    Abstract ( 289 )   HTML ( 49 )   PDF(pc) (12053KB) ( 93 )   Save

    Objective To systematically evaluate and compare the accuracy between computer-aided dynamic implant surgery (dCAIS) and computer-aided static navigation (sCAIS) in implant surgery. Methods Databases in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang from January 2000 to May 2022, were searched to identify controlled trials that compared dCAIS and sCAIS. The risk of bias in cohort studies (CS) and randomized controlled stu-dies (RCTs) was assessed using NOS and Jadad scale, respectively. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.4 and Stata 16 software. Results A total of 12 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 8 CS and 4 RCTs. Subgroup analysis, which was conducted according to object, edentulous category, navigation system, registration method, indicated that dCAIS resulted in significantly less implant apical deviation (P<0.05) and angular deviation (P<0.05) than sCAIS, except for implant platform deviation (P>0.05). Conclusion Limited evidence implied that dCAIS could achieve higher accuracy in implant surgery than sCAIS. Further evidence from higher-quality clinical studies are needed to supervise the current performance in diverse edentulous category under the coherent navigation system and registration.

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    Reviews
    Research progress on mucoperiosteum perforation in maxillary sinus elevation
    Huangphattarakul Vicha,Man Yi.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  552-557.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023089
    Abstract ( 732 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF(pc) (1100KB) ( 514 )   Save

    Maxillary sinus floor elevation is an effective method to resolve the insufficient bone height of implant sites in the maxillary posterior region. However, reports of related complications still arise due to the relatively high sensitivity of the technique. The mucoperiosteum of the maxillary sinus is relatively thin, and perforation is prone to occur during maxillary sinus floor elevation. At present, the clinical management of perforation includes repair through biomaterials, such as resorbable collagen membrane, collagen matrix, and platelet derivatives, or repair through suturing. However, guidelines for the management and repair of the perforation of the maxillary sinus mucoperiosteum are lacking. This article reviews the common complications, diagnosis, classification, and repair of perforation of the maxillary sinus mucoperiosteum based on relevant literature.

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    Research progress on the effects of prophylactic antibiotics on postoperative complications during the perioperative period of tooth extraction
    Wang Renyi,Zhao Chengzhi,Pan Jian.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  558-565.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023079
    Abstract ( 1540 )   HTML ( 37 )   PDF(pc) (810KB) ( 488 )   Save

    Complications, such as swelling, bleeding, infection, and dry socket, may occur after tooth extraction. Dentists often apply antibiotic treatment to reduce or prevent these complications. However, whether to use antibiotics during the perioperative period of tooth extraction remains controversial. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate combinations are the most frequently used antibiotics in the perioperative period of tooth extraction. No clear evidence has shown that the using time of antibiotic administration (preoperative, postoperative, or both) has significant effect on complication prevention, but the median postoperative duration is always 3-4 days after operation. The use of antibiotics depends on patients’ general condition and the locations of affected teeth during the perioperative period of tooth extraction. This review mainly focuses on antibiotic types, use principles, time, methods, and antibiotic administration to provide reference for alleviating complications after tooth extraction.

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    Diagnosis and treatment of odontogenic and non-odontogenic maxillary sinusitis
    Ji Xiao,Zhang Lan,Huang Dingming.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  566-572.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023078
    Abstract ( 766 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF(pc) (770KB) ( 467 )   Save

    Odontogenic factor is an important part of the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis. Odontogenic sinusitis mainly involves the maxillary sinus, which is anatomically closely related to the maxillary posterior teeth roots. However, the diagnosis of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis is difficult due to its nonspecific clinical presentation and imperfect studies. Most current research suggests that the primary treatment of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis is surgery, with antimicrobial drugs as adjunctive therapy. However, the choice and order of oral surgery versus sinus surgery remains controversial. This article reviewed the diagnosis and treatment of odontogenic and non-odontogenic maxillary sinusitis from histopathology, microbiology, clinical manifestations, imaging manifestations and treatment options, aiming to provide clinicians with better diagnosis and treatment options and to provide a basis for research of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.

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    Research progress on the association between primary failure of tooth eruption and parathyroid hormone receptor 1 gene
    Yu Yuelin,Kong Weidong
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  573-580.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023080
    Abstract ( 150 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF(pc) (1050KB) ( 257 )   Save

    Primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease mainly characterized by unilateral or bilateral posterior tooth open bite and absence of obvious local hindrance or systemic factors. PFE is related to the abnormal mechanism of tooth eruption. Its etiology is closely related to the mutation of parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTH1R) gene, but the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. This article reviews the research status of hot gene PTH1R signal defects related to the pathogenesis of PFE and osteoclast function, dental follicle development, alveolar bone formation, periodontal ligament formation, and root formation, to provide reference for the study of etiological genetics and molecular mechanism of PFE.

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    Application and development of supplementary techniques in removing the remaining filling materials of root canal retreatment
    Zhao Yuanxi,Su Qin.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  581-586.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023086
    Abstract ( 1436 )   HTML ( 34 )   PDF(pc) (768KB) ( 397 )   Save

    Root canal retreatment involves removing the original infected filling materials, preparing, cleaning, and fil-ling the root canal again in a crown down direction. The effective removal of filling materials is the basis of successful retreatment. Techniques of root filling removal using manual instruments and mechanical Ni-Ti retreatment have been widely used in clinical. For further improvement in the rate of root filling removal, supplementary techniques have been deve-loped on the basis of conventional mechanical system. Some examples include using self-adjusting file, XP-Endo files, kinetic energy irrigation system, laser and continuous flushing out of the canal to remove the filling materials. This review summarizes the application and development of new supplementary techniques to provide reference for improving the rate of root filling material removal in clinical work.

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    Research progress on the correlation between Parkinson’s disease and periodontitis
    Gong Meiling,Cheng Xingqun,Wu Hongkun.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  587-593.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023087
    Abstract ( 191 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF(pc) (791KB) ( 431 )   Save

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative disease of nervous system that commonly occurs in the elderly. Chronic neuroinflammation is closely related to its pathophysiology. As one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases, periodontitis can cause local and even systemic inflammation and is a risk factor for many systemic diseases. The correlation between PD and periodontitis is still unclear. Although no direct evidence confirms that periodontitis plays a role in the pathogenesis of PD, periodontitis may cause neuroinflammation through various ways and thus affect the occurrence of PD. This work reviews the research progress of PD and periodontitis to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of oral and systemic chronic diseases.

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    Research progress on sticky bone in oral tissue regeneration
    Wang Jiaxi,Mingyue Lü,Yuan Quan
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  594-602.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023045
    Abstract ( 435 )   HTML ( 27 )   PDF(pc) (1202KB) ( 774 )   Save

    The reconstruction of the defective alveolar bone is of great significance to restore the oral and maxillofacial aesthetics and function, and is also one of the difficulties in tissue regeneration. Sticky bone is a composite biomaterial made from a mixture of plasma products and bone substitutes. With the progress of basic research and the improvement of preparation techniques, sticky bone made from different production methods has been successively applied in the oral tissue regeneration including alveolar bone reconstruction, and has achieved positive effect on soft and hard tissue regeneration. We reviewed the evolution, preparation method, characteristics, and the clinical progress of sticky bone, aiming to promote the application of sticky bone in clinical work.

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    Research progress on the application of mechanotherapy in orthodontic treatment
    Song Wenpeng,Gong Beiwen,Li Dan,Zeng Jianyu,Qiu Lingling
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  603-612.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023077
    Abstract ( 124 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (1622KB) ( 408 )   Save

    Mechanotherapy has been widely applied in basic research and clinical practices due to its safety. Mechanotherapy, including extracorporeal shock wave therapy, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound, vibration therapy, etc., is able to act on proteins, cells, and tissues in multiple pathways to produce unique therapeutic effects. In recent years, with the development of research, the use of mechanotherapy to assist orthodontic treatment has received more and more attention. This article will review the research progress and related mechanisms of mechanotherapy as an adjuvant orthodontic treatment in recent years, and provide guidance for future clinical research.

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    Research progress on mechanism of Enterococcus faecalis escaping host immune defense
    Xu Zhibo,Meng Xiuping.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  613-617.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023073
    Abstract ( 125 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF(pc) (743KB) ( 338 )   Save

    Enterococcus faecalis is the main pathogenic bacteria in persistent apical periodontitis, which contains a variety of virulence factors. The host immune defense can mobilize a variety of immune cells and immune molecules in the body to regulate the body’s inflammatory response, which can play an important role in persistent periapical periodontitis caused by Enterococcus faecalisis. However, in the process of invading the body, Enterococcus faecalisis can form a va-riety of mechanisms to escape host defense immunity, so that it can survive in the host and cause damage. This article will review the research progress on the immune defense mechanism of Enterococcus faecalisis escaping the host, aiming to explore why Enterococcus faecalisis cannot be cleared in the periapical tissue from the perspective of immunity, in order to provide new information for the prevention and treatment of persistent periapical periodontitis idea.

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    Research progress on oral-craniomaxillofacial features and treatment of Down syndrome
    Liu Ting,Wu Xiuping.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (5):  618-622.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023056
    Abstract ( 162 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF(pc) (769KB) ( 412 )   Save

    Down syndrome, also known as Trisomy 21, is a chromosomal abnormality associated with mental retardation or developmental delay, and may affect patient growth and their craniomaxillofacial growth and development. The stomatognathic system consists of a variety of complex anatomical and tissue structures that allow humans to perform functions such as articulation, mastication, and swallowing. The jaws, teeth, as well as muscles are important components of this system, in which changes in either structure can affect the functional exercise associated with it, thus affecting the patient’s quality of life. This article reviews the effects of down syndrome on craniomaxillofacial and oral manifestations and the corresponding treatments, in order to provide a reference basis for the clinical treatment and risk assessment.

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