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Table of Content

    01 November 2023, Volume 50 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Expert Forum
    Application of partial crown reattachment in complicated crown-root fractures of permanent anterior teeth in children
    Wu Li’an
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  623-631.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023099
    Abstract ( 362 )   HTML ( 69 )   PDF(pc) (4562KB) ( 714 )   Save

    Complicated crown-root fracture is a serious type of dental trauma, involving dental hard tissues, tooth pulp and periodontal tissues. The most commonly recommended treatment methods by International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) include orthodontic extrusion, surgical extrusion, intentional replantation and adhesive coronal fragment reattachment, etc. The common feature of these treatment methods is to extract the broken coronal fragment, expose the fracture line and make the restoration. However, the extraction itself and the subsequent treatments will cause various problems, which severely compromise and challenge the long-term prognosis. Recently, we tried a technique including non-extraction of the coronal fragment and partial coronal fragment reattachment. I.E., the coronal fragment was retained instead of extraction, and the reattachment was only performed along the supragingival fracture line and subgingival fracture line across pulp cavity side only, while the subgingival fracture line across periodontal side was left untreated. Our technique, basing on the concept of periodontal preservation, and aiming at simplifying the operation procedure, reducing the re-injury to periodontal tissues to the greatest extent, and decreasing subsequent pe-riodontal complications as possible, has got satisfying clinical manifestation so far. However, the adhesive strength of the partial coronal fragments reattachment and their long-term prognosis need to be observed and evaluated further.

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    Oral and maxillofacial development
    Research progress on the relationship between vitamin and oral clefts
    Xia Weiyao,Jia Zhonglin
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  632-638.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023094
    Abstract ( 194 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF(pc) (768KB) ( 416 )   Save

    The relationship between vitamins and oral clefts has been a great concern.In recent years, researchers have explored the effects of vitamins on the pathogenesis of oral clefts. Vitamins may regulate palate formation, influence bone and cartilage development, alter methylation levels, or play a protective role during exposure to teratogens. Maternal vitamin levels are strongly associated with the development of oral clefts, and multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy may prevent or mitigate the development of the disease. This article provides a review of the research progress on the relationship between vitamin and oral clefts and the underlying mechanism. Results provide a basis for reasonable vitamin supplementation during pregnancy to prevent and reduce the occurrence of oral clefts.

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    Root dysplasia of teeth: a review
    Wang Jingnan,Deng Shuli.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  639-645.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023103
    Abstract ( 179 )   HTML ( 26 )   PDF(pc) (913KB) ( 423 )   Save

    Abnormal root development seriously affects the function of teeth, and even causes early tooth loss. The development of tooth root is complex. At present, the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases are still poorly understood, and the specific pathogenesis is still unclear. Based on a large number of research and case reports, we review the clinical manifestations and possible pathogenesis of root dysplasia.

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    Orthodontics
    Progress in research into the long-term stability of maxillary protraction therapy in skeletal classmalocclusion
    Xu Shukui,Zhang Shan,Xie Xinyu,Ma Wensheng.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  646-652.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023102
    Abstract ( 178 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF(pc) (830KB) ( 330 )   Save

    Maxillary protraction is one of the common treatment methods for skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion. However, its long-term stability remains controversial. This article reviews the key factors in maintaining the long-term stability of maxillary protraction or relapse, methods for improving long-term outcomes, and the prediction and screening of skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion.

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    Morphological characteristics of sella turcica and its relationship with malocclusion
    Wang Luodan,Fan Hong
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  653-660.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023098
    Abstract ( 151 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF(pc) (1735KB) ( 319 )   Save

    The sella is a saddle shaped bone located on the inner surface of the sphenoid bone. In the field of orthodontics, the sella point at the center of the sella is one of the most commonly used landmarks in cephalometric analysis. Its morphology is often used to describe craniofacial morphology, and then evaluate the relationship between craniofacial morphology and maxillary and mandible. Recently, scholars have found that the size and morphological changes of the sella turcica, especially the saddle bridge, are often closely related to craniofacial malformations and tooth dysplasia. Orthodontists should be familiar with the normal anatomical structural characteristics and morphological variations of the sella turcica region in order to identify and study the relevant pathological conditions. This study mainly summarized the morphological characteristics of the sella turcica, and the correlation between various types of skeletal malocclusions, tooth development abnormalities and sella turcica morphology, providing new auxiliary diagnostic ideas for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

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    Original Articles
    Relationship between periodontitis and ferroptosis based on bioinformatics analysis
    Luo Xiaojie,Wang Dexu,Chen Xiaotao
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  661-668.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023082
    Abstract ( 171 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF(pc) (2875KB) ( 474 )   Save

    Objective Bioinformatics methods were used to investigate the correlation between periodontitis and ferroptosis. Methods Dataset GS16134 was downloaded from the GEO database, and the driver and suppressor genes of ferroptosis were downloaded from the ferroptosis database (FerrDb). R soft was used to standardize the data, and the “limma” package was used to screen for differentially expressed genes in periodontitis (P<0.05). GO and KEGG analyses were conducted to analyze the differentially expressed genes and identify their main functions and pathways. Protein interaction network was used to screen for key mRNAs. Results Fifty differentially expressed ferroptosis regulatory genes were screened in periodontitis gingival tissue samples and healthy gingival tissue samples. Results of GO function and KEGG pathway analyses showed that the differentially expressed genes mainly participated in the oxidative stress reaction, and they were mainly concentrated in the ferroptosis pathway. Conclusion Ferroptosis regulatory genes were differentially expressed in periodontitis tissue samples, and these genes primarily functioned in the oxidative stress and iron metabolism pathways, indicating a correlation between the two. Ferroptosis may affect inflammation and even bone remodeling of alveolar bone through lipid peroxidation, as well as abnormal iron metabolism. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of periodontitis development.

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    Implant surface micromorphological changes after Er: YAG laser irradiation observed under scanning electron microscope
    Sun Xu,Deng Zhennan,Wen Cai,Zhao Ying
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  669-673.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023083
    Abstract ( 122 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (2780KB) ( 310 )   Save

    Objective This work aimed to investigate the effects of Er: YAG laser irradiation with different modes and parameters on the micromorphology of implant SA, SLA, Xpeed, and RBM surfaces. Methods An Er: YAG laser with wavelength of 2 940 nm was selected under the soft tissue mode (parameter settings of 50 mJ, 10 Hz; 100 mJ, 10 Hz; and 200 mJ, 10 Hz) and hard tissue mode (parameter settings of 100 mJ, 10 Hz and 200 mJ, 10 Hz). Under water cooling with the non-contact mode, the working tip was 1 mm away from the surface of the implants. One point on SA, SLA, Xpeed, and RBM surfaces was irradiated for 5 s. Micromorphological changes of the surfaces before and after laser irradiation were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results Under SEM observation, for the SA surface in the soft tissue mode, no change was observed under irradiation at 50 mJ, 10 Hz and 100 mJ, 10 Hz. When the energy was increased to 200 mJ, 10 Hz, the micromorphology of the surface was partially melted. For the SLA surface in the soft tissue mode, no change was noted under 50 mJ, 10 Hz irradiation. When the energy was increased to 100 mJ, 10 Hz and 200 mJ, 10 Hz, partial melting and complete melting were observed, respectively. For the SA and SLA surfaces, no changes were observed under the hard tissue mode with 100 mJ, 10 Hz and 200 mJ, 10 Hz irra-diation. For the Xpeed surface and RBM surface in the soft tissue mode under 50 mJ, 10 Hz irradiation, the surface peak collapsed and melted flakily, respectively. When the energy was increased to 100 mJ, 10 Hz and 200 mJ, 10 Hz, partial melting and complete melting were observed on both surfaces, respectively. For the Xpeed surface and RBM surface, no change was observed under 100 mJ, 10 Hz irradiation in the hard tissue mode, whereas partial melting was observed when the energy increased to 200 mJ, 10 Hz. No coating peeling was observed on the Xpeed surface. Conclusion When trea-ting implant surfaces with Er: YAG laser, the energy parameters should be set below 50 mJ, 10 Hz in the soft tissue mode and below 200 mJ, 10 Hz in the hard tissue mode for the SA and SLA surfaces to avoid damage to the implant surface. The soft tissue mode was not suitable for the Xpeed and RBM surfaces, but they could be treated below 100 mJ, 10 Hz in the hard tissue mode.

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    Correlation analysis of serum angiopoietin-2 level with forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 regulatory T cells and disease activity in patients with oral lichen planus
    Wang Sujie,Tan Qin,Wei Yuan,Wang Jie,Fan Jie,Yue Erli.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  674-678.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023096
    Abstract ( 152 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (727KB) ( 207 )   Save

    Objective This study aims to explore the relationship between serum angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) levels and forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3)-positive regulatory T cells (Treg) and disease activity in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). Methods A total of 113 patients with different types of OLP were selected (observation group), including 45 cases of reticular type, 36 cases of hyperemia type, and 32 cases of erosion type. Another 76 healthy volunteers (control group) were included. Serum Ang-2 and Foxp3+ Treg levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Clinical sign scores, reticular-atrophic-erosive (RAE) lesion scores and disease activity scores of patients with OLP were analyzed. Pearson correlation analysis was used to clarify the correlation between each score and levels of Ang-2 and Foxp3+ Treg. Results The levels of Ang-2 and Foxp3+ Treg in the serum of patients with OLP of different types were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The serum levels of Ang-2 and Foxp3+ Treg were higher in patients with erosive and hyperemia types than in patients with the reticuloid type (P<0.05). Compared with the hyperemia type, the serum le-vels of Ang-2 and Foxp3+ Treg in patients with erosive type were higher (P<0.05). The clinical sign scores, RAE lesion scores, and disease activity scores of erosive and hyperemic patients were higher than those of patients with the reticulated type (P<0.05). Patients with erosion type had higher levels of the above indices than patients with the hyperemia type (P<0.05). The serum levels of Ang-2 in patients with OLP was positively correlated with Foxp3+ Treg, clinical sign scores, RAE lesion scores, and disease activity scores (r=0.531, 0.548, 0.554, 0.528, P<0.001). Conclusion Serum Ang-2 levels were abnormally elevated in patients with OLP, and the level of elevation was positively correlated with Foxp3+ Treg levels, clinical signs, lesions, and disease activity.

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    Reviews
    Progress in research into the effect of Rhizoma Drynariae on the treatment of bone-related diseases in the oral cavity
    Huang Yuanhong,Peng Xian,Zhou Xuedong.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  679-685.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023107
    Abstract ( 221 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF(pc) (788KB) ( 410 )   Save

    Rhizoma Drynariae is a traditional Chinese medicine utilized to detoxify the kidney and strengthen the bones. It comprises a variety of compounds, including flavonoids, triterpenoids, phenylpropane, lignans, and phenolic acids, which effectively enhance bone metabolism and regulate inflammatory factors. It is currently utilized in the treatment of various bone-related disorders, such as bone fractures and knee osteoarthritis. In recent years, the effectiveness of Rhizoma Drynariae in treating bone-related diseases in the oral cavity has been assessed. The findings have shown that it can promote bone healing in periodontal diseases, accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatment, and promote the osseointegration of implant surfaces. This review aims to summarize the biological functions of Rhizoma Drynariae and recent progress in research into its use for the treatment of oral bone-related diseases, thus providing valuable reference for further study and clinical application.

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    Regenerative endodontic procedures for permanent tooth with immature apices in adult patients
    Hu Jia,Wang Xiuqing,Lu Guoying,Huang Xiaojing.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  686-695.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023095
    Abstract ( 220 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF(pc) (1042KB) ( 545 )   Save

    Regenerative endodontic procedures have been used to treat infected immature permanent teeth in children and adolescents to achieve continued root development and dentin-pulp complex formation. Treating the infected teeth of adult patients with immature apices is challenging. Current treatments form physical barriers by apexification or apical barrier technique. Although teeth can be saved, they are devitalized and become susceptible to reinfections and fractures. With the development of tissue engineering and biomaterials, researchers have tried to save the immature permanent teeth of adults by regeneration. Here, the clinical efficacy of regenerative endodontic procedures is analyzed to explore whether they should be developed for dental pulp and/or dentin regeneration in adults with immature apices.

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    Research progress on the application of computer-assisted navigation surgery in complex maxillofacial fractures
    Lu Lei,Wang Xin,Kang Zebiao,Xie Fuqiang
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  696-703.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023085
    Abstract ( 131 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF(pc) (838KB) ( 294 )   Save

    Maxillofacial fractures are one of the common diseases of the oral and maxillofacial area. Traditional surgical treatment relies on the rigid internal fixation after the reduction of the operator’s direct-looking technique. However, the treatment of complex maxillofacial fractures by traditional surgery still faces many shortcomings due to the complexity of the maxillofacial anatomy and the high requirements for facial aesthetics. Computer-assisted navigation surgery can provide accurate tracking and real-time visualization of anatomical targets and related instruments, which is more effective in solving the problems in the treatment of complex maxillofacial fractures, but there are still some challenges that can not be overcome and are worth studying. This work reviews the procedures of computer-assisted navigation surgery in different types of complex maxillofacial fractures, the methods to improve the accuracy of surgery, its advantages of achieving minimally invasive surgery, and the differences among the computer-assisted navigation surgery, the augmented reality surgery and the robot-assisted surgery, and propose the challenges that plague the application of computer-assisted navigation surgery, such as precise alignment, accurate conduction of intraoperative data, high costs, and difficulties in soft tissue localization. The future development of the application of computer-assisted navigation surgery in complex maxillofacial fractures is prospected.

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    Research progress on endoscopy-assisted laser lithotripsy in the treatment of sialolithiasis
    Yang Jing,Liu Denggao.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  704-710.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023108
    Abstract ( 148 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (786KB) ( 263 )   Save

    Sialolithiasis is a common salivary gland disease. It is characterized by saliva excretion disorder, which is often accompanied with secondary infection. It seriously affects the quality of a patient’s life. The exact etiology of salivary stones is not completely clear. It is generally believed to be related to local factors, including foreign bodies and inflammation, and certain systemic factors. Conventional management of sialolithiasis consists of non-invasive conservative ma-nagement and surgical treatment. With the application of sialendoscopy and the development of relevant surgical techniques, various minimally invasive gland-preserving treatments have emerged, including endoscopy-assisted laser lithotripsy. This manuscript aimed to review the etiologic factors in sialolithiasis and the research progress on endoscopy-assisted laser lithotripsy in the treatment of sialolithiasis.

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    Research progress on cancer-associated fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment of oral squamous cell carcinoma
    Wu Jiamin,Xia Bin,Yang Hefeng,Xu Biao.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  711-717.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023110
    Abstract ( 131 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF(pc) (793KB) ( 331 )   Save

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts are the most abundant stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. An increasing number of studies have found that cancer-associated fibroblasts play a remarkable role in the development of tumors. Cancer-associated fibroblasts remodel the extracellular matrix, regulate tumor metabolism, and participate in immune regulation, and promote tumor growth, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion. Therefore, disrupting the interaction between cancer-associated fibroblasts and the surrounding environment may provide us with new therapeutic ideas. In this paper, we will review the research progress on cancer-associated fibroblasts in oral squamous carcinoma.

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    Review of classification methods for evaluating the difficulty of mandibular third molar extraction
    Chai An,Lei Rongchang,Jiang Zhisheng,Qu Binbin,Guo Jincai,Li He,Shao Qi
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  718-722.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023105
    Abstract ( 274 )   HTML ( 35 )   PDF(pc) (747KB) ( 509 )   Save

    To select an appropriate extraction method, the position relationship and extraction difficulty of mandibular third molars are generally evaluated by intraoral examination and imaging examination. Now, the classification of mandi-bular third molars widely used in clinical practice mainly includes Winter classification and Pell-Gregory classification.Therefore some studies show that the evaluation results have a large deviation from the actual situation, and the clinical applicability is not strong. On this basis, the scholars combined with the anatomical characteristics of the mandibular third molar to make a more detailed classification, and proposed classification methods such as Pederson Index, Comprehensive Impacted Index, Juodzbalys and Daugela. This article summarizes the classification methods for evaluating the difficulty of mandibular third molar extraction, and provides a reference for safer and more efficient extraction of mandibular third molars.

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    The influencing factors and clinical significance of tongue position
    Yang Dongye,Zhu Ping,Wu Shuyi
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  723-728.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023109
    Abstract ( 221 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF(pc) (813KB) ( 503 )   Save

    The tongue is an organ with multiple functions. Tongue position is closely related to the function of the stomatognathic system. Tongue position is affected by inheritance, acquired behavior, respiratory pattern, teeth loss, defective denture, and other factors. Considering the tongue’s anatomical and physiological connections, medical staff should be conscious of the fact that incorrect tongue position may lead to different local and systemic dysfunctions. Tongue position assessment should be included in clinical examinations to improve the effect of treatments. Knowledge of tongue position is limited in China. This paper reviews the definition and influencing factors of tongue position, the influence of tongue position on the body, and the evaluation and treatment of tongue position to improve the correct knowledge of tongue position among medical staff and to provide references for clinical work.

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    Diagnosis and treatment of post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathic pain after dental implantation
    Liao Honglin,Fang Zhonghan,Zhang Yanyan,Liu Fei,Shen Jiefei.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  729-738.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023104
    Abstract ( 273 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF(pc) (872KB) ( 400 )   Save

    Dental implants are preferred in the restoration of missing teeth. With the explosive growth in the number of dental implants, the incidence of surgical complications has increased. Post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathic pain (PTNP) caused by implant surgery is a serious complication in the oral and maxillofacial regions and cannot be ignored in the application of implant prosthesis. The pathological mechanism of PTNP remains unclear, and no unified standard for clinical treatment is available. This article is a systematic review on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of PTNP, providing a reference for clinical management strategies for PTNP.

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    Modification of silk fibroin-based hydrogels and their applications for bone tissue engineering
    Chen Runzhi,Zhang Wentao,Chen Feng,Yang Fan
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (6):  739-746.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023081
    Abstract ( 160 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (781KB) ( 432 )   Save

    The repair and reconstruction of large bone defects require a thorough understanding of the physicochemical and biological properties of bone tissue, as well as bionic strategies to prepare suitable bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Silk protein is a natural polymer material with unique biological properties. Hydrogels prepared with silk protein as their main component are also promising scaffold materials. Certain properties of the hydrogel need to be modified to meet the requirements of an ideal scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, this paper reviews the modification methods to silk fibroin hydrogel when applied to bone tissue engineering in terms of enhancing mechanical properties, increasing biological inductivity, and regulating biodegradability.

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