Int J Stomatol ›› 2023, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (4): 485-490.doi: 10.7518/gjkq.2023067

• Reviews • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Research progress on preparation forms for the margin of monolithic zirconia crowns in posterior teeth

Wang Xiao-chen(),Wang Jian.()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Dept. of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
  • Received:2022-11-11 Revised:2023-03-25 Online:2023-07-01 Published:2023-06-21
  • Contact: Jian. Wang;


Zirconia is the most widely used high-strength ceramic material in recent years. Monolithic crowns made from second-generation zirconia have the advantage of being aesthetic and solid enough to withstand the masticatory pressure of posterior teeth even at a thickness of 0.5 mm. These crowns are therefore widely used in posterior full crown restoration. The margin of the crowns can be prepared using knife edge, chamfer edge, and shoulder edge. The margin preparation differs from that of glass-ceramic crowns due to the high mechanical properties of monolithic zirconia crowns, but a standard preparation procedure is not yet available. This review aims to summarize the margin preparation forms for posterior monolithic zirconia crowns and discuss the stress distribution, mechanical properties, marginal adaptation and effects on the abutment and periodontal tissues of different margin preparation forms. Results provide a clinical practice re-ference for the margin preparation of posterior monolithic zirconia crowns.

Key words: monolithic zirconia crown, margin, round shoulder, chamfer edge

CLC Number: 

  • R 783.3


Fig 1

Different gingival edge preparation forms of full zirconium crown in posterior teeth"

1 López-Suárez C, Castillo-Oyagüe R, Rodríguez-Alonso V, et al. Fracture load of metal-ceramic, monolithic, and bi-layered zirconia-based posterior fixed dental prostheses after thermo-mechanical cycling[J]. J Dent, 2018, 73: 97-104.
2 Kasem AT, Sakrana AA, Ellayeh M, et al. Evaluation of zirconia and zirconia-reinforced glass cera-mic systems fabricated for minimal invasive preparations using a novel standardization method[J]. J Esthet Restor Dent, 2020, 32(6): 560-568.
3 Baig MR, Tan KB, Nicholls JI. Evaluation of the marginal fit of a zirconia ceramic computer-aided machined (CAM) crown system[J]. J Prosthet Dent, 2010, 104(4): 216-227.
4 赵铱民. 口腔修复学[M]. 8版. 北京: 人民卫生出版社, 2020: 21-91.
Zhao YM. Prosthodontics[M]. 8th ed. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House, 2020: 21-91.
5 Faruqi S, Ganji KK, Bandela V, et al. Digital assessment of marginal accuracy in ceramic crowns fabricated with different marginal finish line configurations[J]. J Esthet Restor Dent, 2022, 34(5): 789-795.
6 Schmitz JH, Beani M. Effect of different cement types on monolithic lithium disilicate complete cro-wns with feather-edge preparation design in the posterior region[J]. J Prosthet Dent, 2016, 115(6): 678-683.
7 Loi I, Felice AD. Biologically oriented preparation technique (BOPT): a new approach for prosthetic restoration of periodontically healthy teeth[J]. Eur J Esthet Dent, 2013, 8(1): 10-23.
8 Imburgia M, Canale A, Cortellini D, et al. Minimally invasive vertical preparation design for ceramic veneers[J]. Int J Esthet Dent, 2016, 11(4): 460-471.
9 Stack J, Millar BJ. Analysis of posterior zirconia crowns with vertical margin preparations[J]. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent, 2022, 30(1): 55-64.
10 Serra-Pastor B, Loi I, Fons-Font A, et al. Periodontal and prosthetic outcomes on teeth prepared with biologically oriented preparation technique: a 4-year follow-up prospective clinical study[J]. J Prosthodont Res, 2019, 63(4): 415-420.
11 Agustín-Panadero R, Serra-Pastor B, Loi I, et al. Clinical behavior of posterior fixed partial dentures with a biologically oriented preparation technique: a 5-year randomized controlled clinical trial[J]. J Prosthet Dent, 2021, 125(6): 870-876.
12 Agustín-Panadero R, Martín-de Llano JJ, Fons-Font A, et al. Histological study of human periodontal tissue following biologically oriented preparation technique (BOPT)[J]. J Clin Exp Dent, 2020, 12(6): e597-e602.
13 Paniz G, Nart J, Gobbato L, et al. Periodontal response to two different subgingival restorative margin designs: a 12-month randomized clinical trial[J]. Clin Oral Investig, 2016, 20(6): 1243-1252.
14 Øilo M, Kvam K, Gjerdet NR. Load at fracture of monolithic and bilayered zirconia crowns with and without a cervical zirconia collar[J]. J Prosthet Dent, 2016, 115(5): 630-636.
15 Mohd Kasmani MN, Amat NF, Meor Ahmad MI, et al. Prestasi mekanik korona zirkonia monolitik melalui kaedah unsur terhingga[J]. Sains Malays, 2021, 50(4): 1077-1087.
16 Pang Z, Chughtai A, Sailer I, et al. A fractographic study of clinically retrieved zirconia-ceramic and metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses[J]. Dent Mater, 2015, 31(10): 1198-1206.
17 Miura S, Kasahara S, Yamauchi S, et al. Effect of finish line design on stress distribution in bilayer and monolithic zirconia crowns: a three-dimensio-nal finite element analysis study[J]. Eur J Oral Sci, 2018, 126(2): 159-165.
18 Patroni S, Chiodera G, Caliceti C, et al. CAD/CAM technology and zirconium oxide with feather-edge marginal preparation[J]. Eur J Esthet Dent, 2010, 5(1): 78-100.
19 Beuer F, Aggstaller H, Edelhoff D, et al. Effect of preparation design on the fracture resistance of zirconia crown copings[J]. Dent Mater J, 2008, 27(3): 362-367.
20 Abdulazeez MI, Majeed MA. Fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns with modified vertical preparation: a comparative in vitro study[J]. Eur J Dent, 2022, 16(1): 209-214.
21 Sorrentino R, Navarra CO, Di Lenarda R, et al. Effects of finish line design and fatigue cyclic loading on phase transformation of zirconia dental ceramics: a qualitative micro-Raman spectroscopic analysis[J]. Materials (Basel), 2019, 12(6): 863.
22 Ha SR. Biomechanical three-dimensional finite element analysis of monolithic zirconia crown with different cement type[J]. J Adv Prosthodont, 2015, 7(6): 475-483.
23 Ahmed WM, Abdallah MN, McCullagh AP, et al. Marginal discrepancies of monolithic zirconia crow-ns: the influence of preparation designs and sinte-ring techniques[J]. J Prosthodont, 2019, 28(3): 288-298.
24 Tekin YH, Hayran Y. Fracture resistance and mar-ginal fit of the zirconia crowns with varied occlusal thickness[J]. J Adv Prosthodont, 2020, 12(5): 283-290.
25 Mohaghegh M, Firouzmandi M, Ansarifard E, et al. Marginal fit of full contour monolithic zirconia in different thicknesses and layered zirconia crowns[J]. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent, 2020, 10(5): 652-658.
26 Li R, Chen H, Wang Y, et al. Performance of stereolithography and milling in fabricating monolithic zirconia crowns with different finish line designs[J]. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2021, 115: 104255.
27 Euán R, Figueras-Álvarez O, Cabratosa-Termes J, et al. Marginal adaptation of zirconium dioxide copings: influence of the CAD/CAM system and the finish line design[J]. J Prosthet Dent, 2014, 112(2): 155-162.
28 Baig MR, Al-Tarakemah Y, Kasim NHA, et al. Eva-luation of the marginal fit of a CAD/CAM zirconia-based ceramic crown system[J]. Int J Prosthodont, 2022, 35(3): 319-329.
29 Schriwer C, Skjold A, Gjerdet NR, et al. Monolithic zirconia dental crowns. Internal fit, margin quality, fracture mode and load at fracture[J]. Dent Mater, 2017, 33(9): 1012-1020.
30 Candido LM, Miotto LN, Fais L, et al. Mechanical and surface properties of monolithic zirconia[J]. O-per Dent, 2018, 43(3): E119-E128.
31 Borelli B, Sorrentino R, Goracci C, et al. In vitro analysis of residual tooth structure of maxillary anterior teeth after different prosthetic finish line preparations for full-coverage single crowns[J]. J Oral Sci, 2013, 55(1): 79-84.
32 Nakamura K, Harada A, Inagaki R, et al. Fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia molar crowns with reduced thickness[J]. Acta Odontol Scand, 2015, 73(8): 602-608.
33 Yu HY, Zhao YW, Li JY, et al. Minimal invasive microscopic tooth preparation in esthetic restoration: a specialist consensus[J]. Int J Oral Sci, 2019, 11(3): 31.
34 Weigl P, Sander A, Wu YY, et al. In-vitro performance and fracture strength of thin monolithic zirconia crowns[J]. J Adv Prosthodont, 2018, 10(2): 79-84.
35 Tang ZY, Zhao XY, Wang H, et al. Clinical evaluation of monolithic zirconia crowns for posterior teeth restorations[J]. Medicine (Baltimore), 2019, 98(40): e17385.
36 Hickel R, Peschke A, Tyas M, et al. FDI World Dental Federation: clinical criteria for the evaluation of direct and indirect restorations-update and clinical examples[J]. Clin Oral Investig, 2010, 14(4): 349-366.
37 Koenig V, Wulfman C, Bekaert S, et al. Clinical behavior of second-generation zirconia monolithic posterior restorations: two-year results of a prospective study with ex vivo analyses including patients with clinical signs of bruxism[J]. J Dent, 2019, 91: 103229.
38 Mikeli A, Walter MH, Rau SA, et al. Three-year clinical performance of posterior monolithic zirconia single crowns[J]. J Prosthet Dent, 2022, 128(6): 1252-1257.
39 Konstantinidis I, Trikka D, Gasparatos S, et al. Clini-cal outcomes of monolithic zirconia crowns with CAD/CAM technology. A 1-year follow-up prospective clinical study of 65 patients[J]. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2018, 15(11): 2523.
40 Worni A, Katsoulis J, Kolgeci L, et al. Monolithic zirconia reconstructions supported by teeth and implants: 1-to 3-year results of a case series[J]. Quintessence Int, 2017, 48(6): 459-467.
41 Hansen TL, Schriwer C, Øilo M, et al. Monolithic zirconia crowns in the aesthetic zone in heavy grin-ders with severe tooth wear-an observational case-series[J]. J Dent, 2018, 72: 14-20.
42 Lestan NG, Özcan M, Kocjan A, et al. Clinical eva-luation of monolithic zirconia multiunit posterior fixed dental prostheses[J]. J Prosthet Dent, 2022, 128(6): 1258-1264.
43 Leitão CIMB, Fernandes GVO, Azevedo LPP, et al. Clinical performance of monolithic CAD/CAM tooth-supported zirconia restorations: systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. J Prosthodont Res, 2022, 66(3): 374-384.
44 Solá-Ruiz MF, Baixauli-López M, Roig-Vanaclocha A, et al. Prospective study of monolithic zirconia crowns: clinical behavior and survival rate at a 5-year follow-up[J]. J Prosthodont Res, 2021, 65(3): 284-290.
[1] Zeng Fang,Wang Jian. Influencing factors of aesthetic prosthesis performance of monolithic zirconia crowns [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2022, 49(2): 233-238.
[2] Yang Guangmei,Wang Jian. Mechanical properties of monolithic zirconia crowns and its relationship with clinical application [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2022, 49(1): 79-84.
[3] Meng Xiuping,Hou Jianhua,Li Yiran,Sun Mengyao. Research progress on the selection and design of base materials in deep margin elevation [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2021, 48(3): 280-286.
[4] Yuting Han,Yanru Wu. Research progress on deep margin elevation in tooth defect restorations [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2019, 46(3): 349-355.
[5] Ying Zhao,Liu Yang,Yu Xie,Yan Zhang,Wei Wei,Jiang Li. Comparison of accuracies from different scanned objects of Co-Cr metal porcelain crowns fabricated with com-puter aided design/computer aided manufacture technique [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2018, 45(6): 686-689.
[6] Wan Qianbing. Several problems on monolithic zirconia crowns [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2018, 45(1): 9-13.
[7] Tian Bin, Li Yuxuan, Yu Na. Research progress on ultrasonic instruments applied in refined margin shoulder preparation [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2018, 45(1): 97-99.
[8] Peng Bei, Ji Juanjuan, Yang Yang, Huang Dahai, Zhang Xiaoyu, Wang Xiangyun.. Effects of the marginal position of porcelain-fused-to-metal crown on gingival crevicular fluid volume and endotoxin aspartate transaminase levels [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2014, 41(1): 16-19.
[9] Huang Yajing, Li Yueheng, Huang Rui, Qian Yingzi, Duan Yanxia, Zhou Zhi. . An in vitro study of remineralization potential of several toothpastes on initial enamel lesions [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2012, 39(6): 710-713.
[10] CHEN Xiao-rong1, ZHAO Biao1, YIN Heng2. . The charactristics of speech training for postoperation cleft palate patients who have marginal velopharyngeal insufficiency after palatoplasty [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2011, 38(3): 279-282.
[11] LIU Jin -pan1, WANG Ming-guo2.. Research progress on factors that influence the position of the periimplant soft tissues [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2010, 37(5): 613-616.
[12] TENG Ji-li, LUO Lin, LIANG Xing, WANG Hang.. An in vitro study of the marginal fit and fracture strength of Ceramage ceramic o [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2010, 37(3): 277-277~279,283.
[13] DENG Yue1, WANG Wan-chun1, ZHAO Jun1, Kim Young-gyu2, Kwon Jong-jin2.. Study of marginal bone loss around implant and clinical evaluation about one year [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2009, 36(1): 12-12~15.
Full text



[1] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[2] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[3] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[4] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[5] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[6] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[7] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[8] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[9] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[10] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .