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Table of Content

    01 March 2016, Volume 43 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Details and difficulties of indirect bonding technique: how to improve the efficiency of clinical orthodontic treatment
    Zheng Leilei, Feng Ge
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  125-128.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.001
    Abstract ( 1352 )   HTML ( 26 )   PDF(pc) (1308KB) ( 1369 )   Save
    Bracket bonding is the key technology infixed orthodontic treatment, and the accuracy of bracket bonding directly affects the accuracy and efficiency of orthodontic treatment. Indirect bonding transfers brackets to the teeth by bonding brackets on the model and creating a transfer tray. Indirect bonding has been widely used in fixed orthodontic treatment with high accuracy to reduce clinical chair side time and to improve the work efficiency of orthodontists. This article briefly describes the technical process, characteristics, and details and difficulties of indirect bonding in clinical practice.
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    Evaluation of the incomplete cleft palate
    Yin Heng,Jiang Liping,Ma Siwei,Jiang Chenghui,Wang Xiaomeng,Shi Bing,Chen Renji
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  129-133.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.002
    Abstract ( 921 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1186KB) ( 657 )   Save
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    Application of periodontal endoscope and nursing in perioscopy
    Wang Cancan, Yuan Hongmei, Chen Wen
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  134-136.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.003
    Abstract ( 1364 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1098KB) ( 1643 )   Save
    Periodontal endoscope is a useful tool in improving periodontal treatment through Perioscopy. A periodontal endoscope can provide a clear and accurate view during operation, thereby preventing intraoperative injury. Moreover, this technique ensures the comfort of the patient during operation. The professional endoscopy nursing procedures also enable the doctors to improve the efficiency of this treatment. Synergistic cooperation among health care providers can result in efficient and excellent service. This work reviews the use of periodontal endoscope in Perioscopy in terms of the two aspects of periodontal basic treatment and nursing.
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    Music therapy as a nursing intervention to reduce pain during treatment of patients with deep caries
    Zhang Ling, Jiang Wei, Li Haolai
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  137-139.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.004
    Abstract ( 758 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1071KB) ( 376 )   Save
    Objective This study aims to explore music therapy as an intervention for treating patients with deep caries. Methods A total of 133 patients with deep caries were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was degree of pain experienced by the patients before and after treatment was observed using the visual analogue scale(VAS). Results Significantly lower degree of pain was experienced by the experimental group than by the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Music therapy can effectively reduce fear, relieve pain, increase the patients’ comfort, and improve the nursing quality during treatment of deep caries.
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    Postoperative monitoring and analysis of the local temperature of patients after applying cold compress following oral and maxillofacial surgery
    Deng Limei, Tian Li, He Miao, Song Lei, Bai Yuanyan, Xin Liqiong
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  140-142.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.005
    Abstract ( 1006 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1072KB) ( 828 )   Save
    Objective This study monitored postoperatively the local skin temperature of patients after applying cold compress, either continuously or intermittently, following oral and maxillofacial surgery to provide sound basis for clinical nursing. Methods By using non-contact infrared forehead thermometer, we monitored the local skin temperature of 40 eligible patients by applying cold compress immediately and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 h after maxillofacial surgery. Results After cold compress reduced the skin temperature of the patients to above 30 °C, the skin temperature tends to rise with time. Conclusion The cold compress may be extended appropriately when necessary. Non-stop cold compress for 24 h may be applied, although the ice packs must be replaced every1-2 h.
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    Nursing experience on crown lengthening surgery with piezosurgery
    Zhao Yujun, Yuan Hongmei, Chen Wen, Lin Hongli
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  143-145.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.006
    Abstract ( 1215 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (1068KB) ( 920 )   Save
    This study aims to summarize the nursing key points and matters that require attention during piezosurgery for alveolar bone repair and formation as well as to provide theoretical evidence for clinical nursing guidelines. We reviewed the medical records of 20 patients who underwent crown lengthening surgery with piezosurgery in the Department of Periodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University. The pros and cons of piezosurgery treatment, the key points of clinical nursing cooperation, and the maintenance of piezosurgery equipment were summarized, along with the clinical nursing experience. Piezosurgery guarantees safe operation, precise and efficient conduct of operation by the physician, and reduced patients’ discomfort after surgery for alveolar bone repair and formation. Comprehensive nursing cooperation and appropriate equipment maintenance pre, during, and post-operation ensure successful operation. Overall, effective and comprehensive nursing care largely contribute to the success of piezosurgery for alveolar bone repair and formation.
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    Four cases of X-ray and cone beam computed tomography radiographic findings of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma involving jaws in the oral and maxillofacial region
    Guo Wenhao, You Meng, Luo Jingjing, Wang Kaili, Wang Hu, Zheng Guangning
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  146-150.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.007
    Abstract ( 1079 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (5987KB) ( 532 )   Save
    Cone beam computational tomography(CBCT) and panoramic radiographs of four oral and maxillofacial non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma(NHL) cases verified by pathology were analyzed. Three cases involved the maxillary region and one case occurred at the bilateral maxilla and mandible. All CBCT imaging findings possessed the features of ill-defined borders and osteolytic regions. However, the extent of bone destruction varied. The panoramic images of two cases also exhibited bony changes. Although both CBCT and panoramic findings of NHL demonstrate general malignant features, its variety of jaw change deserves further study.
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    Influence of bracketless invisible aligner technique and conventional technique on the number of Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis
    Shi Jing, Yan Zhengbin, Hou Jingqiu, Peng Hui
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  151-154.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.008
    Abstract ( 956 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1222KB) ( 453 )   Save
    Objective This study aims to compare the periodontal indices and the percentage of Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis between adult patients with bracketless invisible aligner and conventional brackets. Methods Thirty adult patients were divided into two groups(experimental group:15 patients with bracketless invisible aligner; and control group:15 patients with conventional brackets). The clinical periodontal indices[plaque index(PLI), sulcus bleeding index(SBI), and probing depth(PD)] of the observed teeth were examined at three different time points: before orthodontic treatment and in the first and third months after treatment. Dental plaques were collected simultaneously at each time point. We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect and quantitate the number of total Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in each sample to determine the percentage of Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis of total bacteria. Results Before treatment, the periodontal indices and the percentage of Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis of total bacteria showed no difference between the two groups(P>0.05). Moreover, the periodontal indices and the percentage of Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis of total bacteria were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group(P<0.05); the PLI and the percentage of Streptococcus mutans of total bacteria of the experimental group also increased with time(P<0.05). The SBI, PD, and percentage of Porphyromonas gingivalis of total bacteria also showed no difference between the two groups(P>0.05). The periodontal indices and the percentage of Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis of total bacteria of the control group also significantly increased with time(P<0.05). Conclusion Compared with the use of conventional brackets, the bracketless invisible aligner technique is better for periodontal health, although it adversely affects the oral health.
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    Analysis of the correlative factors of the nasolabial angle of patients with Angle’s Class Ⅱ division 1 malocclusion in Chengdu
    Du Yajing, Yao Hongying, Huang Shiyan, Xu Shuhao, Rao Nanquan, Li Xiaobing
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  155-158.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.009
    Abstract ( 677 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1094KB) ( 478 )   Save
    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of the nasolabial angle of patients with Angle’s Class Ⅱ division 1 malocclusion in Chengdu and the relative factors effecting the changes to provide experimental results to help in orthodontic clinical diagnosis and treatments. Methods We selected cephalometric radiographs of 200 children with Angle’s Class Ⅱ division 1 malocclusion with ANB angle greater than 5°. A total of 22 measurements on hard and soft tissues were included. Results The average nasolabial angle of children with Angle’s Class Ⅱ division 1 malocclusion is 96.401°±11.265°. SN-Prn, SNCm-FH angle, UL’A’-FH angle, UL’SN-FH angle, and UL’-SN have a strong correlation with nasolabial angle. Conclusion The key factors affecting nasolabial angle are centralized in pates nasalis and upper lip soft tissue and are less relative with maxillary central incisor position and hard tissue morphology. The upper lip soft tissue is important in the cushioning within the facial soft tissue profile.
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    Comparison of clinical effects in ultrasonic system and periodontal flap surgery in a short time
    Liu Qiong, Xie Hao, Sun Jiang
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  159-164.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.010
    Abstract ( 1159 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1217KB) ( 685 )   Save
    Objective This study aims to compare the clinical effects of therapy with vector ultrasonic system and periodontal flap surgery in patients with chronic periodontitis in a short time. Methods A total of 30 patients with chronic periodontitis were selected. The patients had deep pockets from 5 mm to 7 mm in both single-rooted teeth and multirooted teeth at 3 months after initial therapy. All patients were randomly divided into three groups. Each group had 10 patients. The patients were treated with vector ultrasonic system, periodontal flap surgery, and scaling and root planning, respectively. Patients were asked to report their perceived pain after 1 day of treatment by using a visual analog scale. The clinical parameters of bleeding on probing(BOP), probing depth(PD), gingival recession(GR), and clinical attachment loss(CAL) were recorded by Florida electronic probe at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. Differences were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results The three groups had differences in pain perception 1 day after the treatment. The vector ultrasonic system treatment group had the least pain reported, and the periodontal flap surgery group had the worst pain reported. For the study of the single-rooted teeth, the three groups had differences in PD, GR, and BOP after treatment in 3, 6, and 12 months compared with the baseline(P<0.01). After 1 year, the vector ultrasonic system treatment group and periodontal flap surgery group showed similar improvement in PD; however, the former had the lowest GR and CAL. For multi-rooted teeth, the three groups improved in PD at 3 and 6 months after treatment. CAL decreased in the vector ultrasonic system treatment group and the periodontal flap surgery group. CAL and PD decreased in the periodontal flap surgery group(P<0.05) 12 months after treatment. GR increased in three groups at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment (P<0.01). In addition, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment, the BOP positive rate decreased in the periodontal flap surgery group (P<0.01). The other two groups had no difference 12 months after treatment(P>0.05). Conclusion The vector ultrasonic system achieved better curative effect on single-rooted teeth than periodontal flap surgery 1 year after treatment. In multi-rooted teeth, the effect of the periodontal flap surgery was the most stable, whereas the other two treatments were unstable.
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    Effect of polishing and glazing techniques on the wearing of zirconia crown against enamel
    Chen Jifen, Ding Hong
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  165-167.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.011
    Abstract ( 733 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1172KB) ( 671 )   Save
    Objective This in vitro study aimed to measure the roughness and wearing of polished, glazed, and polished and then reglazed zirconia against human enamel antagonists. Methods Zirconia specimens were divided into the polished, glazed, and polished and then reglazed groups(n=8). Enamel was used as a control. The mesiobuccal cusps of extracted maxillary third molars were standardized and used as antagonists. The surface roughness of all pretest specimens was measured, and the effects of treated zirconia on the wear property of the enamel were evaluated by a wear test. Results Surface roughness increased in the following order: polished zirconia References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Periostin and its biological function in periodontal ligament
    Wu Ziqiang, Tang Chunbo
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  168-171.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.012
    Abstract ( 1278 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1184KB) ( 393 )   Save
    Periostin, a matricellular protein first found in rat osteoblast with cell adhesion function, is essential for the function maintenance of extracellular matrix and is expressed in various stages of embryonic development and various adult tissues, such as bone, heart, lung, artery, vein, and periodontal ligament. The function of periostinin cardiovascular physiology or occurrence and development of tumor has been fully studied. The function of periostin in human periodontal ligament cells and tooth development has gained much interest. Many studies have revealed that periostin plays multiple functions in periodontal ligament formation as well as in human periodontal ligament cell recruitment, adhesion, and differentiation and plays a key role in the remodeling of the periodontal ligament. The formation of collagen fiber is a complicated process, with multiple matricellular proteins involved. Periostin interacts with collagen and can maintain the integrity of periodontal ligament under mechanical stress. The present article reviews the development of periostin research on periodontal ligament function maintenance.
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    Roles of pathogen-associated and damage-associated molecular patterns in immune inflammatory response
    Ding Ye, Ren Jingyi, Yu Hongqiang, Zhou Yanmin, Yu Weixian
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  172-176.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.013
    Abstract ( 11645 )   HTML ( 173 )   PDF(pc) (1179KB) ( 2791 )   Save
    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns(PAMP) and damage-associated molecular patterns(DAMP) are two molecules closely linked to immunology. DAMP are defined as a class of substances released to the cell or blood supply upon stimulation by tissue damage, cell hypoxia, or other factors. PAMP form the molecular structure of the pathogen. Both of these molecules are identified by pattern recognition receptors, which leads to the immune response. To date, research shows that DAMP and PAMP are associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This thesis will summarize the roles of PAMP and DAMP molecules in immune inflammatory response.
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    Research progress on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell homing to the damaged tissue
    Yao Lin, Lin Jiang
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  177-180.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.014
    Abstract ( 779 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1088KB) ( 389 )   Save
    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell(BMMSC) homing to damaged myocardial tissues can restore cardiac loss function. Stromal cell-derived factor(SDF)1 and cysteine-X-chemokine receptor(CXCR)4 are key chemokines that stimulate repaired cell migration to the damage myocardium; BMMSC moves along the mass concentration of SDF1 to achieve gradient-directed migration to target organs. While both BMMSC in coronary arteries and endocardial injections promote higher rates of colonization, the latter is safer and presents fewer adverse reactions. BMMSC release of nerve and stem cell growth factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can significantly improve glutamate-induced neuronal damage; moreover, this release is an immune modulator of tissue repair, autoimmune diseases, and graft-versus-host disease. BMMSC can regulate the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and chemokines of CXCR4 in tumor tissue, thereby controlling tumor cell proliferation. BMMSC are also ideal cells in periodontal tissue engineering; frozen BMMSC can maintain their fresh characteristics and homing ability is increased. BMMSC migration into the periodontal injury tissue can provide a new perspective for the repair and regeneration of periodontal-damaged tissue.
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    Research progress on the immunity of eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma
    Chen Qingli, Srijana Dwa, Karmesh Bajracharya, Gong Zhongcheng
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  181-186.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.015
    Abstract ( 1269 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1192KB) ( 818 )   Save
    Eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma, is also known as Kimura’s disease(KD), causes elevated eosinophils and serum IgE. The low-affinity IgE receptor is expressed on the surface of B and T cells, as well as eosinophils, and regulates various immune responses. Increased IgG4 is deemed a benign antibody without pathogenicity in primary and recurrent KD. Provision of chemokines, adhesion molecules, and trophic factors induce follicular dendritic cells to participate in the shaping of B cell responses and molding of the local microenvironment. Eosinophil cationic protein from eosinophils is an important agent in KD mechanism. The hyper-responsiveness of C5a in KD plasma may be important in regulating cellular response after complementary activation. Interleukin(IL)-4 induces IgE synthesis. IL-5, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-3 lead to focal eosinophil infiltration. Eotaxin and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted factor would also help to boost eosinophils concentration in inflammation. T helper(Th) cells are subdivided into the Th1 and Th2 subsets. Th1 cells are primarily involved in cellmediated immune responses, whereas Th2 cells fulfill an important role in humoral and allergic immune responses. Lifted eosinophils and serum IgE may be caused by Th2 polarization in the KD mechanism.
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    Review of the application of biomembranes in socket/ridge preservation
    Zhu Chenyou, Deng Jia, Cao Yubin, Liu Mengke, Yang Xingmei
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  187-189.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.016
    Abstract ( 1562 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1143KB) ( 696 )   Save
    Given the ongoing and progressive bone resorption after tooth extraction, the alveolar ridge will demonstrate certain loss in height and width, thus affecting the successful placement and osseointegration of dental implants. Moreover, these changes can lead to a serious aesthetic problem. Socket preservation is a reliable way to prevent and reduce bone loss by filling bone grafts or suitable bone substitute materials into the extraction socket. However, the bone grafts will easily leak if the defect was not closed by a free gum tissue, which is the gold standard of flap transfer. Both materials from autologous gums may cause a secondary wound. The use of collagen, high-density polytetrafluoroethylene(dPTFE), or other membranes may address the above mentioned problem and reduce patients’ discomfort, but the application of biomembranes still needs to be discussed. Therefore, this article reviews the application of biomembranes in socket preservation, as well as other methods that do not require biomembranes to provide a reference for clinical operations.
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    Research progress on arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide and its derivatives in the surface biological modification of pure titanium and its alloys
    Xu Jiliang, Xia Rong
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  190-194.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.017
    Abstract ( 832 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1174KB) ( 693 )   Save
    Titanium and its alloys have excellent biological properties for wide used as dental and orthopedic implant materials. However, titanium is an inert material and cannot be directly osseointegrated with bone after its implantation. Therefore, surface biological modification of pure titanium and its alloy has been a research focus in the field of biological materials. Arginine–glycine–aspartic acid(RGD) peptides, namely, the RGD tripeptide sequence, are a candidate protein in the surface modification of titanium, which are widely present in fibronectin, vitronectin, bone salivary gland proteins, and other extracellular matrix proteins, and can regulate adhesion behavior of cell-serum and cell-extracellular matrix. Therefore, this article seeks to review the study and progression on surface biological modification of pure titanium and its alloys treated by RGD peptide and its derivatives.
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    Function quantitative control of time and space in the growth factor to promote angiogenesis
    Xu Mengdan, Zou Duohong
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  195-200.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.018
    Abstract ( 709 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1184KB) ( 712 )   Save
    Hemorrhagic disease which is harmfulness, high death rate and morbidity has become one of the challenges faced by the clinical medicine. While, the blood supply reconstruction of low hemorrhagic diseases have obvious curative effect. Angiogenesis need a variety of mature vascular growth factors in certain time space and mass concentration under the joint action of normal vasculature to vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) expression in precise control of time and space. Under different time the specific environment, mass concentration of the same kind of growth factor is not the same, which plays a different role, such as transforming growth factor-β1, VEGF receptors and hif, etc. In the process of angiogenesis and tissue function reconstruction, the direction of the angiogenesis under the influence of directional migration of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, branching morphogenesis and VEGF space gradient height adjustment, which reflects the space distribution features of VEGF expression. The time space of vascular growth factors control needs to establish the quantitative standards of cytokines in the organization, so as to accurately control formation damage tissue blood vessels; So looking for the right transfer system to achieve specific growth factors within the area, and understanding of time and space characteristics of vascular growth factor plays an important role in the construction of new blood vessels. The characteristics of the rational utilization of vascular growth factors will provide more choice for the treatment of vascular disease.
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    The application of three-dimensional stereophotography in facial soft tissues
    Xie Liuping, Zhang Weibing
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  201-206.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.019
    Abstract ( 719 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1115KB) ( 725 )   Save
    3D surface imaging technologies include Moiré topography, laser scanning, and three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry. Although Moiré topography presents the advantages of low-cost and non-invasiveness, its facial reconstruction is still not intuitive and lacks sensitivity. Laser scanning is high-precision, realistic, and efficient in threedimensional reconstruction but can easily damage the eyes. Only capture surface morphology renders the observation of soft tissue texture difficult. Moreover, longer capture time is likely to increase motion artifacts. Three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry offers significant advantages, such as safety, non-invasive, rapid capture speeds without the risk of motion artifacts, data storage convenience, and ease of inquiry, which enables subsequent and repeated analysis of archived images without contact with the inspected objects. This approach is more convenient for communication between doctors and patients and benefits the design and adjustment of the patient's individual treatment plan. Three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry also renders future remote online clinical diagnosis and treatment possible and may also become a routine examination for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction.
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    Inhibition and induction on the differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells in different microenvironments
    Pan Youtiao, Wang Yifei, Zhao Xun, Zeng Xianzhuo, Zhang Zhen, Cheng Junjun, Li Xianing, Liu Wei, Zhao Hongyu
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  207-211.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.020
    Abstract ( 833 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1176KB) ( 460 )   Save
    Periodontal ligament stem cells(PDLSC), basic cells in the new treatment strategy for periodontal regeneration, perform a triggering function in regeneration after periodontal defect and the maintenance of periodontal dynamic equilibrium. Based on basic research and preclinical studies, as well as clinical trials, PDLSC would show different proliferation and differentiation in different microenvironment. PDLSC niche and inflammation could inhibition differentiation, whereas the microenvironment of dentin and developmental apex could show promotion. Therefore, the effects of different microenvironments on PDLSC may open the access of biological function and present theoretic foundation for periodontal regeneration. Therefore, this review focuses on the features and functional mechanisms of periodontal microenvironments and adds further insight into the use of PDLSC preparation as viable therapy for periodontal regeneration.
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    Effects of pattern recognition receptors and pathogen associated molecular patterns in defense of periodontal disease
    Liu Shuang, Li Shu
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  212-215.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.021
    Abstract ( 1606 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1162KB) ( 708 )   Save
    Pattern recognition receptors(PRR) can sense the presence of microorganisms by recognizing pathogenassociated molecular patterns(PAMP), and timely transduce signals to downstream pathways and lead to inflammasome generation. PAMP include lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoicacid, peptidoglycan, and teichoic acid mannose. Different PAMP can be recognized by different PRR, and trigger cytokines through serious of protein cascade reaction so as to effectively revitalizing natural immune response. After recognized by Toil-like receptor(TLR), PAMP can contribute to the synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines, induce nitric oxide dependency bactericidal activity and breath, and mediate human monocyte cell and epithelium cell expressing TLR2 apoptosis. After effected by TLR4, LPS can promote dendritic cells mature, induce the synthesis and release of TLR2, and secrete cytokines such as interleukin-6. Studying TLR will contribute to the understanding of chronic periodontal disease and provide new methods of the treatment. Therefore, research progress of the gingival epithelial PRR and PAMP on the surface of periodontal pathogens, as well as their function in periodontal disease, is reviewed in this paper.
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    The application of platelet-rich fibrin in alveolar ridge site preservation
    Liao Jun, Xu Pu
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  216-219.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.022
    Abstract ( 701 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1160KB) ( 515 )   Save
    After tooth extraction, there would be some degree of alveolar bone crest absorption with soft tissue recession, which leads to unsatisfactory implantation restoration. Platelet-rich fibrin(PRF) contains platelet, leukocyte, cytokines, transforming growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, et al. These cells and factors could regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and programmeddeath of cells effectively, which are related to tissue regeneration. PRF could promote vascularization in operation site, enhance infected resistance, and promote the regeneration of soft and hard tissue. The porous and reticulated structureof PRF makes it easy for growth factors and oxygen to diffuse, and for new bone forming to replace blood vessels. Itprovides enough space for the vascularization of bone, which promotes the regeneration of soft and hard tissue eventually. Compared with platelet-rich plasma, PRF is acquired from the patients themselves, need less time to prepare, and have better biosecurity and bioactivity. It could work alone, and cooperate with other materials as well.
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    The progress of relationship between primary trigeminal neuralgia and herpes simplex virus infection
    Xu Peng, Chen Chuanjun
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  220-222.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.023
    Abstract ( 1235 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (1143KB) ( 598 )   Save
    The etiology and pathogenesis of primary trigeminal neuralgia(PTN) is unclear. Recent research reveals that PTN is related to the latency of herpes simplex virus(HSV). The trigeminal ganglia and nerve root in patients with PTN present obvious demyelination changes, which are the main pathological bases of PTN. Depending on its neurotropism, HSV infects the semilunar ganglion of trigeminal nerve and becomes latent for a long time. HSV is activated again when the body immunity is low, causing chronic inflammation of the trigeminal nerve and leading to demyelinating lesions and PTN. Interpretation of the etiology and pathogenesis of PTN would be important clinical significance for revealing the mystery of trigeminal neuralgia and creation and use of targeted therapy.
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    Research progress on oral bacterial adhesion mechanism
    Zheng Sainan, Jiang Li, Li Wei
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  223-227.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.024
    Abstract ( 1025 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (1172KB) ( 1025 )   Save
    Oral bacterial adhesion mechanism is one of the focus studies in the research on oral microbiology and ecology. In recent years, with the improvement of molecular biology, the study of mechanism of oral bacteria adhesion has exhibited considerable progress at the molecular level. The adhesion protein-receptors, fimbriae, and exopolysaccharides on bacterial surface are responsible for the coaggregation of bacteria and adhesion of bacteria to teeth. The acquired pellicle on the material surface and several characteristics of the material, such as roughness, surface charge, and hydrophobicity, can affect bacterial colonization and adhesion. In this paper, the mechanism of oral bacteria adhesion from both bacteria and material, as well as the methods to control bacterial adhesion, are reviewed.
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    Research progress on alanine racemase
    Qiu Wei, Zhou Xuedong, Li Mingyun
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  228-232.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.025
    Abstract ( 1991 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF(pc) (1175KB) ( 1146 )   Save
    Alanine racemase(ALR) is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes reversible racemization between enantiomers of alanine. The enzyme is widely used/existed in lower organisms and is closely related to diseases caused by bacteria. In recent years, ALR has become an ideal design target of antibacterial drugs. Streptococcus mutans(S. mutans) is the main pathogenic bacteria in dental caries, and the main cariogenic virulence of S.mutans includes acid production, ability of adhesion and synthesis of polysaccharide. This review will systematically summarize the classifications, structure characteristics, physiological function, and application of ALR. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between ALR and cariogenic virulence of S.mutans is useful and can provide an important theoretical basis for additional research on the potential antibacterial drug target to caries.
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    Comparison of various irrigation methods on the removal efficacy of calcium hydroxide from root canal
    Long Yunzi, Zheng Chunyan, Wang Zuhua
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  233-238.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.026
    Abstract ( 1838 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF(pc) (1232KB) ( 1137 )   Save
    Calcium hydroxide(CH) is widely used as intracanal treatment during root canal therapy. However, calcium hydroxide remnants left in the root canal may influence the sealing ability of root canal filling, thereby compromising the quality of root canal therapy. This article compares the efficiency of eight different techniques of removing calcium hydroxide, including needle irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, sonic irrigation, canalbrush, Endovac system, RinsEndo system, self-adjusting file system, and laser-activated irrigation, and provides information for clinical selection and application of these systems to remove CH medication from root canals.
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    Research status of antibacterial coating on orthodontic brackets
    Zhao Fujian, Wang Zhenshi, Shi Lianshui
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  239-243.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.027
    Abstract ( 882 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1172KB) ( 870 )   Save
    The bonding of orthodontic brackets may increase dental plaque adhesion and promote microbial imbalance. This phenomenon subsequently leads to enamel demineralization and periodontal damage. Commonly used methods cannot control dental plaque, but antimicrobial modification on the surface of orthodontic brackets can eliminate this defect. Materials for antimicrobial modification include TiO2, Ag, and polytetrafluoroethylene, which can reduce plaque biofilmformation. Commonly used coating methods include physical vapor deposition, sol-gel, liquid phase deposition, electrochemical process, and anodic oxidation. Antibacterial coating exhibits favorable biocompatibility and prevents oral mucosal irritation, short-term systemic toxicity, and genetic toxicity. Thus, this method meets the application requirements of oral biological materials.
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    The function of the WD40-encoding RNA antisense to P53 and protein
    Lu Wenxin, Ge Yichen, Xiao Liying, Li Yan
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (2):  244-248.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.02.028
    Abstract ( 917 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1218KB) ( 637 )   Save
    WD40-encoding RNA antisense to P53 has three exons:1α, 1β, and 1γ. The exon 1α of WRAP53 directly overlaps the first exon of P53 in an antisense way. The WRAP53 1α transcript could regulate the level of P53 RNA, and then induce the expression of the P53 protein. The biological behavior of tumor could be regulated by P53 protein. The exon 1β of WRAP53 produces a protein called WRAP53 protein, which is associated with programmed cell death, cycle regulation, protease degradation and RNA metabolism. WRAP53 protein contacts with various components of telomerase, helps the telomerase to locate in Cajal body(CB) and is an essential factor for CB formation, maintenance and the location of survival motor neuron. WRAP53 has a high expression in tumor cell and clinical tumor sample. The higher the expression of WRAP53 is, the worse of the prognosis of tumor will be. Silencing the WRAP53 can inhibit the growth of tumor cell. Dyskeratosis congenital is related to the shortage of the length of telomere which is owing to the low expression of WRAP53.
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