Table of Content

    01 May 2016, Volume 43 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Evaluation and removal strategies of the broken instruments in the root canal
    Gao Yuan, Xu Jialei, Yang Qian, Huang Dingming, Zhou Xuedong
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  249-259.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.001
    Abstract ( 1578 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF(pc) (4177KB) ( 1346 )   Save
    Separation of endodontic instruments within the root canal is one of the common complications during root canal preparation. Management of separated instruments includes orthograde approaches, surgical approaches and extraction. It is essential to evaluate the conditions of specific cases in order to choose the proper approach. Based on the review of literatures and clinical experiences in dealing with broken instruments, the present article proposes the evaluation methods and management options, especially emphasizing the removal strategies, which may help dentists in treating the separated instrument cases.
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    Solutions on standardized clinical training of endodontic residents
    Zhang Chen, Wang Jing, Hou Benxiang
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  260-262.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.002
    Abstract ( 725 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1043KB) ( 669 )   Save
    Standardized clinical training plays an important role in the entire process of a resident growth. Endodontics is characterized by high practicality, difficult operation, and rapid development of new technology. This paper discusses how to improve the clinical skills, thinking skill, research ability, and comprehensive quality of endodontics residents. This paper provides reference for the field of endodontics.
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    Exploring the necessity of aesthetic education for prosthodontic postgraduates
    Zhou Jinru, Chen Xiwen, Li Xin, Li Ziyan, Zhu Zhimin, Chen Wenchuan
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  263-267.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.003
    Abstract ( 817 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1045KB) ( 688 )   Save
    The formation process of oral medical aesthetics is reviewed to analyze the current situation of domestic aesthetic education and existing problems. We clarify the association between aesthetics and dental prosthesis as well as the significance in improving aesthetic quality and clinical practice ability. We then explore the necessity of aesthetic education for prosthodontic postgraduates. Teaching methods to strengthen aesthetic education are also proposed.
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    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signal pathway regulates the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells
    Wu Dong, Bao Guanghui
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  268-272.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.004
    Abstract ( 619 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1740KB) ( 719 )   Save
    Objective This study aims to explore whether the extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK) 1/2 signaling pathway could regulate the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells. Methods The human periodontal ligament cells from the third passage were divided into three groups, namely, black control group, osteogenic induction group, and experimental group(10 nmol·L-1 PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, was added in the osteogenic medium). One or three weeks after culture, the osteogenic capability of the periodontal ligament cells was evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction(qPCR), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) staining, and alizarin red staining. Results Osteogenic induction promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation. One week after culture, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation up regulated the expression of Runx2, ALP, and osteocalcin(OCN) in periodontal ligament cells. Statistically significant differences were found in OCN and the osteogenic induction group(P<0.05), and statistically significant differences were found in ALP and Runx2(P<0.01). Three weeks after culture, the expression of Runx2, ALP, and OCN remained higher in the experimental group than in the osteogenic induction group. In addition, strong ALP staining and more calcium nodule formation were observed in the periodontal ligament cells of the experimental group. Statistically significant differences were found in ALP and Runx2(P<0.05), and statistically differences were found in OCN(P<0.01). Conclusion The ERK1/2 signal pathway could regulate the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells in vitro.
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    Differential expression of surface-associated proteins in clinical isolations of Streptococcus mutans
    Zhao Xingfu, Jiang Shan, Huang Xiaojing, Yan Fuhua
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  273-277.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.005
    Abstract ( 771 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1386KB) ( 542 )   Save
    Objective This study aims to investigate the changes in the expression of surface-associated protein at pH7.0 in Streptococcus mutans isolated from clinical samples. Methods The proteins were extracted from the cells at pH7.0 by using the Homer method. The proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDSPAGE) and 2D gel electrophoresis(2DE) followed by image analysis. The proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight(MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and computer-assisted protein sequence analysis. Results Image analysis revealed that 14 high expression protein loci and 8 specific protein loci exist in Streptococcus mutans 593. Specifically, pyruvate kinase and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter were modulated, and glucose transferase was highly modulated in Streptococcus mutans 593. Conclusion The difference in protein expression of the two clinical isolations may indicate their distinct cariogenic characters.
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    Comparative study on nickel release of two dental nickel alloys in mouth wash
    Tian Taoran, Zhang Yanggen, Huang Xinqi, Li Longbiao, Zhang Xinxi, Zhu Zhuoli
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  278-282.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.006
    Abstract ( 925 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1671KB) ( 441 )   Save
    Objective This study aims to investigate the release of nickel from two nickel alloy specimens for dental prosthesis in a commercial mouth wash through a constant immersion experiment. Methods Standard samples were casted from two different alloys and ground to achieve the same roughness. For our experimental group, one-half of the samples are immersed in a solution composed of artificial saliva and commercial mouthwash. For our control group, the other half of the samples are placed in a solution containing artificial saliva and distilled water. This procedure is performed at (37±1) °C for 96 h. The amount of Ni ion released after the 96 h immersion test and the changes in the surfaces of the alloys asreceived and upon immersion are then determined by using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer(ICP-OES) and a scanning electron microscope. Results The amount of released Ni ion is below the minimum detection limit of ICP-OES in the blank solution without the alloys. More ions are released from the Ni-casted alloy than from the Ni-Cr porcelain fused to a metal in the experimental group and the control group. The ions released from each alloy are also significantly different in the two solutions. Conclusion The tested commercial mouthwash accelerates the release of Ni ion from the two nickel alloys. This phenomenon is more significant in the nickel-casted alloy than in the other alloy type.
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    Influence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and its gingipain K in healthy gingiva of teenagers
    Han Zhiqiang, Bai Yang, Xiao Shuiqing, Sun Fei, He Ping
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  283-287.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.007
    Abstract ( 865 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1237KB) ( 511 )   Save
    Objective To explore the relationship of Porphyromonas gingivalis(P. gingivalis), gingipain K(Kgp) and puberty gingivitis in the subgingival. Methods Subjects(12-to 17-year-old children) included 50, 25, and 32 periodontally healthy, puberty gingivitis indexⅠ, and puberty gingivitis index Ⅱ children, respectively. 16S rDNA PCR was conducted to detect P. gingivalis and Kgp from the samples. Chi-square test was performed to compare the prevalence of Kgp and P. gingivalis in the three groups. Spearman correlation analysis was also employed to evaluate the relationship between the relative quantity of Kgp and periodontal parameters. Results P. gingivalis in the puberty gingivitis index Ⅱ group was higher than that in the periodontally healthy group. Puberty gingivitis index Ⅱ was higher than puberty gingivitis index Ⅰ and periodontally healthy groups. Puberty gingivitis index Ⅱ, puberty gingivitis index Ⅱ, and periodontally healthy groups were significantly different from one another(P<0.01). Puberty gingivitis index Ⅰ was also significantly different from puberty gingivitis index Ⅱ(P<0.05). Kgp in the puberty gingivitis index Ⅰ group is higher than that in the periodontally healthy group(P<0.01). Puberty gingivitis index Ⅱ is higher than puberty gingivitis index Ⅰ and periodontally healthy groups. Puberty gingivitis index Ⅰ(P<0.05) and puberty gingivitis index Ⅱ(P<0.01) are significantly different from the periodontally healthy group. P. gingivalis and Kgp detection rates increased in the gingivitis index. Conclusion Kgp and P. gingivalis are closely related to puberty gingivitis in the subgingival.
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    Survey on elderly people in Chengdu about the effect of using removable denture and the knowledge of usage and hygiene
    Li Cheng, Chen Wen, Wang Ruyi, Qiao Xin, Yin Siqi, Wang Jian
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  288-291.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.008
    Abstract ( 704 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1059KB) ( 510 )   Save
    Objective This study aims to determine the status of removable denture usage and oral hygiene knowledge among elderly people in Chengdu, China. Data were analyzed to provide recommendations for elderly people to enhance their oral health and for hospitals to improve their services after delivering dentures. Methods The data obtained from 162 senior participants were analyzed statistically. Results Among the 162 elderly participants, 82.7% brush their teeth at least twice a day, 39.5% vertically brush their teeth, 1.9% perform scaling periodically, and 7.4% use dental floss. The average longevity of removable partial denture was 7.14 years. Among the participants, 57.4% believed that dentures should be changed only when they were broken, approximately 53.7% never participated in a follow-up visit, and 3.7% received a telephone follow-up from their dentists. Conclusion Knowledge on the usage of removable denture and maintenance of oral hygiene should be improved to enhance the utilization of removable denture.
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    Outcome of root canal treatment of experimental apical periodontitis determined by periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography scans
    Gao Jing, Shen Jing, Zhang Haifeng, Jin Shufeng
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  292-294.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.009
    Abstract ( 1055 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1050KB) ( 613 )   Save
    Objective To compare the favorable outcome of one-and two-visit endodontic treatment determined by periapical radiograph(PR) and cone beam computed tomography(CBCT) scans. Methods Fifty-six roots of dogs’ teeth were used to form two groups. All root canals were infected until apical periodontitis was radiographically confirmed. Roots were treated by one-visit therapy in group 1, by two-visit therapy in group 2, the radiolucent area in the PR and the volume of CBCT-scanned periapical lesions were measured after 6 months of the treatment. Results The 28.57% teeth in the one-visit group and 53.57% teeth in the two-visit group were classified as success in CBCT scans, the statistical analysis of the results did not show any significant difference between the groups(P=0.057). 67.86% teeth in the onevisit group and 78.57% teeth in the two-visit group were classified as success in PR, the statistical analysis of the results did not show any significant difference between the groups(P=0.365). A favorable outcome(lesions absent or reduced) was shown in 73.21% roots using PR but only in 41.07% roots using CBCT scans(P=0.001). Conclusion The present study give evidence that similar healing results might be obtained through one-and two-visit endodontics. Our findings provide evidences of the superiority of CBCT scans for the detection of periapical disease compared with PR.
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    Research progress on oral microbiota of early childhood caries
    Huang Hui, Zhang Qiong, Zou Jing
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  295-297.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.010
    Abstract ( 901 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF(pc) (1056KB) ( 764 )   Save
    Not only several selected bacteria but also oral microbiota are closely related to the initiation and progression of early childhood caries(ECC). Oral microbes and the host are in a dynamic balance in normal physiological conditions; however, this varying balance ultimately determines oral infectious disease. Microbiota varies between individual, plaque, and saliva. The microbial diversity of caries-free children is higher than that of severe ECC(SECC) children, and it decreases before caries appears, that is, the caries may be associated with the decrease of microbial diversity. Microbiota composition of SECC children significantly changes post-therapy. Probiotics can decrease the number of cariogenic bacteria and prevalence rate of caries. Learning more about children’s oral microbiota will provide higher predictability of ECC development and lead to the implementation of targeted early intervention. This review focuses on recent microbiological findings about ECC-associated microbiota.
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    Stem cells and scaffolds in dental pulp regeneration and revascularization
    Li Zhou, Xu Qing’an
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  298-302.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.011
    Abstract ( 1058 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1107KB) ( 799 )   Save
    Regenerative endodontics is defined as biologically based procedures designed to replace damaged structures, including dentin and root structures, as well as cells of the pulp–dentin complex. The methods of acquiring stem cells include stem-cell transplantation, cell homing, and induced bleeding. Stem-cell transplantation can yield ectopic dental pulp-like tissues, with the advantages of easily controlling the number of cells transplanted and selecting the optimal subpopulation of stem/progenitor cells. Meanwhile, cell homing is defined as the migration of endogenous host stem cells to the root canal of the offending teeth using signaling molecules. The process is also characterized by the subsequent proliferation and differentiation of the endogenous host stem cells into pulp–dentin-like tissues. Inducing pulp bleeding into the root canals of immature permanent teeth is an important step in regenerative endodontics. Scaffold refers to the structural support for the cells that synthesize tissues. This component promotes cell attachment and provides a specific environment conducive to pulp or dentin regeneration. Pulp regeneration cannot take place without revascularization or angiogenesis. Procedures such as infection control, pretreatment of root canals, and coronal sealing, provide a favorable environment for pulp regeneration, including pulp revascularization. The application and development of tissue engineering technology in endodontics bring new hope for dental pulp regeneration, despite the occurrence of numerous problems.
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    Relationship between the interproximal interface of adjacent teeth and food impaction
    Huang Min, Luo Yun, Wang Min
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  303-308.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.012
    Abstract ( 1232 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF(pc) (1115KB) ( 1399 )   Save
    Food impaction is a common disease in dentistry and a common complication of prosthodontics, which often brings great pain to a patient. The complex etiology and unclear pathogenesis of this disease hinder the provision of effective and individual treatments. Studies have shown that the poor interproximal interface is the main reason for food impaction. They also have indicated that the treatment goals are to restore the normal and tight interproximal interface and to maintain the tight interproximal interface stability to prevent the interface be isolated during chewing. In this paper, we reviewed the factors affecting the interproximal interface, its clinical examination methods, and the relationship of the interproximal interface with food impaction.
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    Application of third-generation biomedical materials in dentistry
    Li Xin, Zhou Jinru, Li Ziyan, Chen Wenchuan
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  309-313.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.013
    Abstract ( 1433 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1104KB) ( 1180 )   Save
    Biomedical materials are special functional materials used to replace and repair diseased, damaged, or aging tissues. The histories of medicine, especially dentistry, are closely related to the development of medical materials. With the development of materials science, life science, and clinical medicine, research about biomedical materials has made great progress. New generation(third-generation) biomedical materials, such as bone tissue engineering scaffold, biofilm for periodontal regeneration, drug controlled-release carrier, etc., are widely used in the field of oral medicine because of their good biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this review, the development of biomedical materials and the research progress of the third-generation biomedical materials in dentistry are discussed. This review aims to help readers understand third-generation biomedical materials and to provide a reference for the application and selection of them in dentistry.
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    Research progress on xerostomia of Sjögren syndrome
    Wang Lu, Li Xia
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  314-317.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.014
    Abstract ( 949 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1103KB) ( 508 )   Save
    Sj?gren syndrome(SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that occurs because of the impairment of the exocrine gland function. Xerostomia is the first sign of SS, and this symptom indicates the beginning of lesions. As the pathogenesis remains unclear, no complete treatment exists. Recently, the functions of aquaporins, capsaicin receptor, and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the pathogenesis of SS xerostomia have gradually received increasing attention. Therefore, this paper reviews the functions and treatment of these factors in the pathogenesis of SS xerostomia.
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    Epigenetics in tooth development and its implication in tooth regeneration
    Zhou Chen, Ling Junqi
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  318-324.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.015
    Abstract ( 1060 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1107KB) ( 637 )   Save
    Epigenetics, mainly including DNA methylation and histone post-translational modification, is the heritable changes that are not caused by changes in the DNA sequence; this change also alters how genes are expressed. DNA methylation typically causes gene transcriptional silencing, whereas demethylation leads to transcription activation. A large number of covalent modifications on histone, such as different types, residues, and amount, will affect the inhibition or activation of gene expression. Epigenetic modifications play pivotal roles in organogenesis by controlling gene expression during cell fate determination and reprogramming. In the process of tooth development, complex orchestration between genetic and epigenetic programs regulates the spatiotemporal expression of cell proliferation-, differentiation-, and migration-related genes, and finally tooth formation. Exploring the molecular biology of epigenetic, together with the epigenetic findings in tooth development, is not only fundamental but also inspiring for tooth regeneration.
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    Research progress on root canal configuration of mandibular anterior teeth
    Zou Huiru, Qin Zongchang
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  325-328.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.016
    Abstract ( 1200 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1029KB) ( 604 )   Save
    Most mandibular anterior teeth are single root with single root canal, but a large morphological divergence on the root canal systems still exists. Extra roots or root canals if not detected are a major reason for the failure of root canal treatment. This paper reviews the research progress on the root canal configuration of mandibular anterior teeth in recent years, analyzes the characteristics of mandibular anterior root canal morphology and its relationship with the outcome of root canal treatment, and provides few suggestions to provide reference for clinical treatments.
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    Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in periodontal tissue regeneration
    Li Ziyan, Li Xin, Zhou Jinru, Li Lei
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  329-332.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.017
    Abstract ( 630 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (1100KB) ( 573 )   Save
    Periodontal disease, root caries, maxillofacial deformity, and trauma will cause defects in periodontal supporting tissue, such as alveolar bone, gingiva, and periodontium. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound(LIPUS) can generate hyperthermia and mechanical stimulation, which can promote the generation and differentiation of cementoblast, odontoblast, and periodontal ligament cell(PDLC). PDLC can differentiate into mesodermal lineages and subsequently generate alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontium. Alkaline phosphatase(AKP) and osteocalcin(OCN) are the advanced markers of osteogenesis and osteogenic differentiation. LIPUS-stimulated PDLC shows improved AKP activity and OCN expression. LIPUS can also decrease the root absorption during orthodontic treatment; accelerate the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of cementoblast, which can repair root defects; and improve the expression of connective tissue growth factor that can accelerate angiogenesis and healing of periodontal tissue. LIPUS, as a safe and non-invasive treatment, can be applied in periodontal tissue regeneration. However, further research should be conducted to determine the most suitable stimulation intensity and treatment time.
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    Effect of sclerostin on cementogenesis and its mechanism
    Chen Tian, Bai Ding
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  333-337.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.018
    Abstract ( 825 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1109KB) ( 441 )   Save
    Sclerostin, a secreted glycoprotein with a C-terminal cysteine knot-like domain protein, is produced by the osteocytes and has anti-anabolic effects on bone formation. Sclerostin is an antagonist of Wnt signaling pathway by binding to low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5/6 receptors and prompting the phosphorylation of β-catenin. Cementum is a specialized substance covering the root of a tooth and a dynamic entity within the periodontium sustaining the firmness of the tooth. Sclerostin has been identified during cementogenesis, in which the underlying mechanism is still obscure. On this basis, providing a comprehensive insight into the interactional and reciprocal molecular mechanism between sclerostin and cementum may facilitate cementogenesis-related tooth development and regeneration.
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    Research progress on the permeability of resin-dentine bonds and bonding durability
    Sun Qiurong, Mai Sui
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  338-342.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.019
    Abstract ( 726 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1065KB) ( 600 )   Save
    The permeability of resin-dentine bonds is closely related to the mechanical stability of resin-dentine bonds and bonding durability. Water from dentinal tubules, contained in the adhesives or remained after etching and rinsing, together with water from the outside environment are sources of water in the areas of nanoleakage, which leads to decreased resin-dentine bonds. Two aspects related to permeability are thought to improve the mechanical stability of resindentine bonds. One aspect is the reduction of permeability in the dentinal tubules, and the other is the improvement of resin infiltration to the hybrid layer. This review includes the permeability of dentine, infiltration of adhesives in the hybrid layer, and strategies concerning permeability and infiltration to create stable resin-dentine bonds.
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    Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in the odontoblast differentiation of dental pulp stem cells and pulp injury and reparation
    Lin Ying, Qin Wei, Zou Rui, Lin Zhengmei
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  343-347.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.020
    Abstract ( 701 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1109KB) ( 405 )   Save
    Several more alternatives can be offered for the treatment of carious pulp disease and restoration of lost teeth by inducing the odontoblast differentiation of dental pulp stem cell(DPSC). Mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPK), specifically P38MAPK, are involved in various cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, by transducing extracellular signal to the cell and nucleus through transcription factor phosphorylation. In addition, bone morphogenetic protein-2, mineral trioxide aggregate, and biodentin can induce the odontoblast differentiation of DPSC by regulating MAPK signaling pathway and certain scaffolds in tissue engineering. Moreover, the MAPK signaling pathway performs an important function in the migration, adhesion, and differentiation of DPSC during dental pulp injury. Based on the key function of MAPK signaling pathway, further study on the molecule, substrate, and mechanisms is crucial.
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    The groE operon of Streptococcus mutans with its expression and regulation
    Wang Yizhou, Zhang Yaqi, Niu Xuewei, Zhang Zhimin
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  348-351.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.021
    Abstract ( 976 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1163KB) ( 479 )   Save
    Streptococcus mutans(S.mutans), as one of the primary cariogenic bacteria, can respond to several environmental stresses. This ability mainly depends on the translation and expression of variety of heat shock protein genes. groE operon, one of the best-studied heat shock genes, affects the metabolism of cells by translating the heat shock proteins, groES-groEL, which can mediate the folding, assembly, transport, and degradation of new or misfolding proteins. The groE operon locates in 1 834 692-1 832 649 sites, including a σA promoter, inverted repeat sequence(CIRCE), groES, groEL and a terminator. It is highly conserved, and can be induced to express by stress environment including heat, acid, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide. Both HrcA-CIRCE system and CtsR play a negative regulation role, without a clear mechanism. Studies, about the structure and regulation mechanism of S.mutans groE operon in a molecular level, help to further clarify the physiological process of cells, and lay the foundation for understanding the molecular mechanism of cells under stress and pathological conditions.
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    Optical coherence tomography and its application in the detection of occlusal caries
    Dai Xiaohua, Yao Hui
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  352-356.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.022
    Abstract ( 788 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1109KB) ( 504 )   Save
    The early detection and diagnosis of caries in pits and fissures remain major problems in clinical dentistry. Optical coherence tomography(OCT) is an emerging, non-invasive, high-resolution, optical diagnostic technique. This approach can provide information on morphology and depth of early caries without the interference of enamel hypocalcification and stain. As the porosity of demineralized dental tissue increases, micro-interfaces within the micropores augment reflection and multiple scattering. Based on low-coherence interferometry, OCT can detect the reflected or backscattered signals to the incident beam at various vertical extents. OCT can also generate 2D/3D images of early enamel caries and dentine caries on the occlusal surface, and quantify lesion severity by calculating the integrated reflectivity. OCT is a promising prospect for the diagnosis of occlusal caries, anti-caries efficacy estimation, and assistance in the selective removal of demineralized tooth tissue by laser. This review focuses mainly on different types of OCT, namely, the conventional, polarization-sensitive, swept-source, and cross-polarization OCT. This review also highlights the abovementioned OCT applications in imaging and quantitative analysis, diagnostic efficiency, and therapeutic monitoring of occlusal caries.
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    Role of transformer 2 regulation and its physiological and pathological significance
    Ning Yi, Zheng Xiaoxu, Sun Rui
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  357-360.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.023
    Abstract ( 1418 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1144KB) ( 347 )   Save
    The transformer(TRA)2 protein belongs to the serine/arginine-rich(SR) protein family. The protein possesses two homologs, namely, TRA2α and TRA2β. These homologs exhibit structures similar to those of the SR proteins but significantly differ in function. TRA2 is not necessarily implicated in composition splicing but plays an important role in selecting the splicing sites of precursor mRNA. Further studies found that in mammals, the TRA2 family protein plays a key role in many physiological and pathological, as well as disease occurrence and development, processes. Moreover, the abnormal splicing process of RNA molecules can cause disease or aggravate existing pathological problems. However, the relationship between TRA2 proteins and diseases remains to be completely understood. Additional energy and effort are required to achieve success in investigating disease causes and in developing treatments.
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    Research progress on the zygomatic implant technique
    Li Yiming, Sun Haipeng, Deng Feilong
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  361-365.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.024
    Abstract ( 1032 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1040KB) ( 1103 )   Save
    Patients with severely atrophied maxilla cannot provide bone tissue for implant anchorage because of the insufficient height and width of their residual alveolar ridges. Many approaches have been suggested to solve this problem, such as autogenous or allogeneic bone grafting; bone grafting with sinus floor augmentation; and the use of short implants, pterygomaxillary implants, zygomatic implants, or removable prostheses. The use of zygomatic implants is an effective method that can avoid bone grafting and adopt immediate rehabilitation. These advantages ideally solve problems on mastication, pronunciation, and appearance in a short time. As a result, scholars have increasingly favored this method over other techniques. In recent years, the design and the surgical techniques of zygomatic implant application have developed rapidly. This article aims to review the related anatomy, general guidelines, surgical techniques, immediate rehabilitation, and the prospects related to zygomatic implant application.
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    Analysis of the safety of thalidomide in the treatment of oral mucosal diseases
    Song Tao, Wang Jiongke, Wen Jing, Chen Qianming, Zeng Xin
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (3):  366-370.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.03.025
    Abstract ( 867 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1132KB) ( 644 )   Save
    Thalidomide has been on the market for more than 60 years. It is currently used for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including a variety of oral mucosal diseases. Due to its serious teratogenic effect, many oral medicine specialists are very cautious about the safety of thalidomide in the clinical application. To clarify its effect, especially on patients of childbearing age and children, we sum up the pharmacokinetics, mechanism and clinical studies of thalidomide. We hope that this review could provide oral medicine specialists with more comprehensive information on the clinical safety and effectiveness of thalidomide for the treatment of oral mucosal diseases.
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