Int J Stomatol ›› 2023, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (1): 100-107.doi: 10.7518/gjkq.2023023

• Reviews • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Clinical research progress on glandular odontogenic cyst

Qin Yichun(),Tan Xuelian,Huang Dingming.()   

  1. State Key La-boratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Dept. of Cariology and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
  • Received:2022-07-07 Revised:2022-10-14 Online:2023-01-01 Published:2023-01-09
  • Contact: Dingming. Huang;
  • Supported by:
    the Funding of Key Research and Development Program of Sichuan Province(2021-YFS0031);the Research and Develop Program, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University(LCYJ2019-6)


Glandular odontogenic cyst is a relatively rare oral and maxillofacial cyst, which is not commonly reported in the literature and is mostly in the form of scattered case reports. However, it has characteristics of aggressive behavior, high recurrence rate, poor prognosis, and harmful influence. In addition, glandular odontogenic cyst often presents as painless swelling in the mandible. Hence, it is difficult to be distinguished from other odontogenic cysts and tumors because it lacks typical clinical symptoms and radiological features. Therefore, this review summarizes the epidemiological characteristics, highlighting the key diagnostic points, differential diagnosis, and common treatment methods, which are aimed at helping dentists to timely diagnose and treat the disease.

Key words: glandular odontogenic cyst, differentiate, diagnosis, treatment

CLC Number: 

  • R 781.34+3


Tab 1

Key points of differential diagnosis of GOC"

(低级别)中央性黏液表皮样癌女性多于男性;面部常不对称;可有下颌骨麻木薄层上皮衬里;实质性上皮增生;中间细胞CK13、 CK19多阴性;CK7、CK8、CK18多阳性;乳腺抑丝蛋白高表达MAML2基因重排阳性下颌磨牙及升支






复发率较低直径多小于1 cm缺乏腺样结构、纤毛上皮下颌尖牙、前磨牙






1 Meningaud JP, Oprean N, Pitak-Arnnop P, et al. Odontogenic cysts: a clinical study of 695 cases[J]. J Oral Sci, 2006, 48(2): 59-62.
2 Singhal I, Dave A, Arora M, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst-an unusual presentation in the maxilla[J]. J Clin Diag Res, 2021, 15(10): ZD18-ZD21.
3 Fowler CB, Brannon RB, Kessler HP, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst: analysis of 46 cases with special emphasis on microscopic criteria for diagnosis[J]. Head Neck Pathol, 2011, 5(4): 364-375.
4 Padayachee A, Wyk CW. Two cystic lesions with fe-atures of both the botryoid odontogenic cyst and the central mucoepidermoid tumour: sialo-odontogenic cyst[J]. J Oral Pathol Med, 1987, 16(10): 499-504.
5 Gardner DG, Kessler HP, Morency R, et al. The glandular odontogenic cyst: an apparent entity[J]. J Oral Pathol, 1988, 17(8): 359-366.
6 Chrcanovic BR, Gomez RS. Glandular odontogenic cyst: an updated analysis of 169 cases reported in the literature[J]. Oral Dis, 2018, 24(5): 717-724.
7 Martins-Chaves RR, Granucci M, Gomez RS, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst-a case series[J]. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2021, 79(5): 1062-1068.
8 van Heerden WF, Raubenheimer EJ, Turner ML. Glandular odontogenic cyst[J]. Head Neck, 1992, 14(4): 316-320.
9 Magnusson B, Göransson L, Odesjö B, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst. Report of seven cases[J]. Dentomaxillofac Radiol, 1997, 26(1): 26-31.
10 Shen J, Fan MW, Chen XM, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst in China: report of 12 cases and immunohistochemical study[J]. J Oral Pathol Med, 2006, 35(3): 175-182.
11 Nel C, Robinson L, Roza ALOC, et al. Clinical and radiologic spectrum of glandular odontogenic cysts: a multicenter study of 92 cases[J]. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2022, 133(5): 593-603.
12 Guruprasad Y, Chauhan DS. Glandular odontogenic cyst of maxilla[J]. J Clin Imaging Sci, 2011, 1: 54.
13 Kaplan I, Anavi Y, Hirshberg A. Glandular odontogenic cyst: a challenge in diagnosis and treatment[J]. Oral Dis, 2008, 14(7): 575-581.
14 Kaplan I, Gal G, Anavi Y, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst: treatment and recurrence[J]. J Oral Ma-xillofac Surg, 2005, 63(4): 435-441.
15 Urs AB, Kumar P, Augustine J, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst: series of five cases[J]. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, 2017, 21(2): 239-243.
16 Ramer M, Montazem A, Lane SL, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst: report of a case and review of the literature[J]. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1997, 84(1): 54-57.
17 Macdonald-Jankowski DS. Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review[J]. Dentomaxillofac Radiol, 2010, 39(3): 127-139.
18 Chandra S, Reddy ES, Sah K, et al. Maxillary glandular odontogenic cyst: an uncommon entity at an un-usual site[J]. Arch Iran Med, 2016, 19(3): 221-224.
19 Koppang HS, Johannessen S, Haugen LK, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst (sialo-odontogenic cyst): report of two cases and literature review of 45 previously reported cases[J]. J Oral Pathol Med, 2007, 27(9): 455-462.
20 Tosios KI, Kakarantza-Angelopoulou E, Kapranos N. Immunohistochemical study of bcl-2 protein, Ki-67 antigen and p53 protein in epithelium of glandular odontogenic cysts and dentigerous cysts[J]. J Oral Pathol Med, 2000, 29(3): 139-144.
21 Lu QL, Abel P, Foster CS, et al. Bcl-2: role in epithelial differentiation and oncogenesis[J]. Hum Pathol, 1996, 27(2): 102-110.
22 Singh BB, Chandler FW Jr, Whitaker SB, et al. Immunohistochemical evaluation of bcl-2 oncoprotein in oral dysplasia and carcinoma[J]. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1998, 85(6): 692-698.
23 Kernohan NM, Cox LS. Regulation of apoptosis by Bcl-2 and its related proteins: immunochemical challenges and therapeutic implications[J]. J Pathol, 1996, 179(1): 1-3.
24 da Silva KD, Neutzling Gomes AP, Balbinot KM, et al. Glandular odontogenic cysts: a collaborative investigation of 22 cases and proteins related to invasiveness[J]. J Oral Pathol Med, 2022, 51(4): 342-349.
25 Júnior JF, de França GM, da Silva Barros CC, et al. Biomarkers involved in the proliferation of the odontogenic keratocyst, glandular odontogenic cyst and botryoid odontogenic cyst[J]. Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2022, 26(4): 655-662.
26 Hussain K, Edmondson HD, Browne RM. Glandular odontogenic cysts[J]. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontology, 1995, 79(5): 593-602.
27 Bulut E, Baş B, Dinçer D, et al. Treatment of maxillary glandular odontogenic cyst involving the same place of previously treated traumatic bone cyst[J]. J Craniofac Surg, 2016, 27(2): e150-e153.
28 Tavargeri AK, Anehosur V, Niranjan KC, et al. Case report of a rare glandular odontogenic cyst in a child: a diagnostic dilemma[J]. Int J Health Sci (Qassim), 2019, 13(3): 53-55.
29 Venkateshwar G, Tamgadge S, Tamgadge A, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst: a case report in an asymptomatic patient[J]. J Exp Ther Oncol, 2019, 13(2): 169-171.
30 High AS, Main DMG, Khoo SP, et al. The polymorphous odontogenic cyst[J]. J Oral Pathol Med, 1996, 25(1): 25-31.
31 Patron M, Colmenero C, Larrauri J. Glandular odontogenic cyst: clinicopathologic analysis of three ca-ses[J]. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1991, 72(1): 71-74.
32 Lee JJ, Chiang CP, Wang YP, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst in the anterior mandible[J]. J Dent Sci, 2018, 13(4): 405-407.
33 Sreekumar VN, Salim S, Cherian SK, et al. A vacillating swelling in maxillary anterior region-diagnostic challenges and management[J]. Natl J Maxillofac Surg, 2020, 11(2): 292-297.
34 Choudhary S, Kadam V, Changule G, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst in a young Indian female: a rare case report with review of literature[J]. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol, 2020, 32(3): 300-302.
35 Barth CT, Chamberlain JA, Wessel JR. Treatment of a mandibular glandular odontogenic cyst with peripheral ostectomy, bone allograft, and implant reconstruction: a case report[J]. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent, 2017, 37(4): e210-e216.
36 Manjunatha BS, Das N, Ahmed T. Odontogenic cyst with diverse histopathological features: report of an unusual case[J]. J Exp Ther Oncol, 2018, 12(4): 295-302.
37 Kaplan I, Anavi Y, Manor R, et al. The use of molecular markers as an aid in the diagnosis of glandular odontogenic cyst[J]. Oral Oncol, 2005, 41(9): 895-902.
38 Poudel P, Srii R, Chaurasia N, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst-report of a rare case[J]. Clin Case Rep, 2020, 8(2): 351-354.
39 AbdullGaffar B, Koilelat M. Glandular odontogenic cyst: the value of intraepithelial hemosiderin[J]. Int J Surg Pathol, 2017, 25(3): 250-252.
40 Ferreira JCB, Vêncio EF, de Sá RT, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst in dentigerous relationship: an uncommon case report[J]. Case Rep Dent, 2019, 2019: 8647158.
41 Sivolella S, Perin C, Capecchi M, et al. Guided bone regeneration in the treatment of a lateral perio-dontal cyst: 2-year clinical and radiologic follow-up[J]. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent, 2018, 38(5): 747-754.
42 Bilodeau EA, Collins BM. Odontogenic cysts and ne-oplasms[J]. Surg Pathol Clin, 2017, 10(1): 177-222.
43 Semba I, Kitano M, Mimura T, et al. Glandular odontogenic cyst: analysis of cytokeratin expression and clinicopathological features[J]. J Oral Pathol Med, 1994, 23(8): 377-382.
44 Sittitavornwong S, Koehler JR, Said-Al-Naief N. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the anterior maxilla: case report and review of the literature[J]. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2006, 64(4): 740-745.
45 Alaeddini M, Eshghyar N, Etemad-Moghadam S. Expression of podoplanin and TGF-beta in glandular odontogenic cyst and its comparison with deve-lopmental and inflammatory odontogenic cystic lesions[J]. J Oral Pathol Med, 2017, 46(1): 76-80.
46 Kaur H, Mishra D, Yadav R. Unique case of glandular odontogenic cyst showing mucoepidermoid carcinoma-like islands in cystic wall[J]. BMJ Case Rep, 2021, 14(2): e239362.
47 Li X, Wang F, Wang YF, et al. An unusual case of intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandible: a case report and literature review[J]. Medicine (Baltimore), 2018, 97(51): e13691.
48 Bishop JA, Yonescu R, Batista D, et al. Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) lack MAML2 rearrangements: a finding to discredit the putative nature of GOC as a precursor to central mucoepidermoid carcinoma[J]. Head Neck Pathol, 2014, 8(3): 287-290.
49 de Souza LL, Pontes FSC, Pontes HAR, et al. Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma: an up-to-date ana-lysis of 147 cases and review of prognostic factors[J]. J Craniomaxillofac Surg, 2018, 46(1): 162-167.
50 Zhou CX, Chen XM, Li TJ. Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 39 Chinese patients[J]. Am J Surg Pathol, 2012, 36(1): 18-26.
51 Dymek M, Książek M, Lewandowski B. Transformation of a glandular odontogenic cyst into mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandible: a case report[J]. Dent Med Probl, 2019, 56(3): 311-316.
52 Maruyama S, Mori T, Yamazaki M, et al. Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising directly from a glandular odontogenic cyst of the mandible: a case report[J]. Diagn Pathol, 2021, 16(1): 61.
53 Pires FR, Chen SY, da Cruz Perez DE, et al. Cytokeratin expression in central mucoepidermoid carcinoma and glandular odontogenic cyst[J]. Oral Oncol, 2004, 40(5): 545-551.
54 Greer RO, Eskendri J, Freedman P, et al. Assessment of biologically aggressive, recurrent glandular odontogenic cysts for mastermind-like 2 (MAML2) rearrangements: histopathologic and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) findings in 11 cases[J]. J Oral Pathol Med, 2018, 47(2): 192-197.
55 Prabhu S, Rekha K, Kumar G. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking central mucoepidermoid carcinoma[J]. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, 2010, 14(1): 12-15.
56 Vered M, Allon I, Buchner A, et al. Is maspin immunolocalization a tool to differentiate central low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma from glandular odontogenic cyst[J]. Acta Histochem, 2010, 112(2): 161-168.
57 Reddy R, Islam MN, Bhattacharyya I, et al. The reliability of MAML2 gene rearrangement in discriminating between histologically similar glandular odontogenic cysts and intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinomas[J]. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2019, 127(6): e136-e147.
58 Jafarian AH, Rahpeyma A, Khajehahmadi S. Recurrent glandular odontogenic cyst of maxilla-a case report[J]. Iran J Pathol, 2015, 10(2): 160-164.
59 Motooka N, Ohba S, Uehara M, et al. A case of glandular odontogenic cyst in the mandible treated with the dredging method[J]. Odontology, 2015, 103(1): 112-115.
60 Rao JB, Kumar KAJ, Kumar BP. Glandular odontogenic cyst involving the posterior part of maxillary sinus, a rare entity[J]. J Maxillofac Oral Surg, 2010, 9(1): 72-75.
61 Momeni Roochi M, Tavakoli I, Ghazi FM, et al. Case series and review of glandular odontogenic cyst with emphasis on treatment modalities[J]. J Craniomaxillofac Surg, 2015, 43(6): 746-750.
62 Lal B, Kumar RD, Alagarsamy R, et al. Role of Carnoy’s solution as treatment adjunct in jaw lesions other than odontogenic keratocyst: a systematic review[J]. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2021, 59(7): 729-741.
63 Qin XN, Li JR, Chen XM, et al. The glandular odontogenic cyst: clinicopathologic features and treatment of 14 cases[J]. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2005, 63(5): 694-699.
64 Gandra PK, Ali M, Goswami S, et al. Surgeons approach to glandular odontogenic cyst of mandible mimicking mucoepidermoid carcinoma[J]. J Maxillofac Oral Surg, 2022, 21(2): 697-700.
[1] Wang Nannan,He Hong,Hua Fang. Research progress on the risk factors of orthodontically induced enamel demineralization [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2024, 51(1): 91-98.
[2] Han Chong,He Dongning,Yu Feiyan,Wu Dongchao. Research progress on the mechanism and treatment of pain after oral implants [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2024, 51(1): 99-106.
[3] Sun Xu,Deng Zhennan,Wen Cai,Zhao Ying. Implant surface micromorphological changes after Er: YAG laser irradiation observed under scanning electron microscope [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2023, 50(6): 669-673.
[4] Huang Yuanhong,Peng Xian,Zhou Xuedong.. Progress in research into the effect of Rhizoma Drynariae on the treatment of bone-related diseases in the oral cavity [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2023, 50(6): 679-685.
[5] Liu Yang,Yin Deqiang. Introducing a novel digital articulation workflow with high precision [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2023, 50(5): 499-505.
[6] Li Yijun, Xu Ziang, Li Yi.. Research progress on the sentinel lymph nodes in the detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2023, 50(5): 521-527.
[7] Ji Xiao,Zhang Lan,Huang Dingming.. Diagnosis and treatment of odontogenic and non-odontogenic maxillary sinusitis [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2023, 50(5): 566-572.
[8] Zhao Yuanxi,Su Qin.. Application and development of supplementary techniques in removing the remaining filling materials of root canal retreatment [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2023, 50(5): 581-586.
[9] Gong Meiling,Cheng Xingqun,Wu Hongkun.. Research progress on the correlation between Parkinson’s disease and periodontitis [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2023, 50(5): 587-593.
[10] Liu Ting,Wu Xiuping.. Research progress on oral-craniomaxillofacial features and treatment of Down syndrome [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2023, 50(5): 618-622.
[11] Jiang Yueying,He Yutian,Li Ting,Zhou Ronghui.. Research progress on the application of near infrared fluorescence probe in the diagnosis of oral cancer [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2023, 50(4): 407-413.
[12] Xia Weiyao,Luo Yankun,Jia Zhonglin. Review of the precise diagnosis and genetic etiology of Pierre Robin sequence [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2023, 50(3): 287-292.
[13] Li Ting,Yang Xuecai,Wang Junwei.. Children with Williams-Beuren syndrome associated with cranial and maxillofacial deformity [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2023, 50(1): 108-113.
[14] Wang Qiqiu,Zhi Qinghui.. Research progress on treatments of enamel white spot lesions [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2022, 49(6): 717-723.
[15] Li Weiguang,Wu Yafei,Guo Shujuan.. Research progress on the use of inorganic nanoparticles in the diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2022, 49(6): 724-730.
Full text



[1] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[2] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[3] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(05): .
[4] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(05): .
[5] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(05): .
[6] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(04): .
[7] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(04): .
[8] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(04): .
[9] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(04): .
[10] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(04): .