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Table of Content

    01 May 2021, Volume 48 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Expert Forum
    Related problems in clinical practice of alveolar ridge preservation
    Hu Wenjie
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  249-259.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021059
    Abstract ( 2297 )   HTML ( 591 )   PDF(pc) (33442KB) ( 3473 )   Save

    Good soft and hard tissue conditions are important for the successful placement of dental implants.However, following tooth extraction, the alveolar ridge undergoes physiological remodeling that results in vertical and horizontal bone reduction, which affects prosthetically driven implant restoration. Alveolar ridge preservation can effectively preserve and reconstruct the volume of alveolar bone. Alveolar ridge preservation with minimally invasive extraction and minimally flap at molar extraction sites with severe periodontitis is strategically recommended to clinicians. This article discusses the changes in soft and hard tissues after natural healing of tooth extraction sockets, the influencing factors of successful alveolar ridge preservation, and the characteristics of alveolar ridge preservation at tooth extraction sites with severe periodontitis.

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    Young Experts’Views
    Speech evaluation and treatment of patients with submucosal cleft palate
    Yin Heng
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  259-262.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021054
    Abstract ( 1110 )   HTML ( 57 )   PDF(pc) (1299KB) ( 206 )   Save

    Submucosal cleft palate (SMCP) is a special type of cleft palate. Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) such as hypernasal speech and nasal emission occurs in some patients, but about 30%-50% of patients do not show any speech symptoms of VPI and do not need surgical treatment. Patients with SMCP do not have the typical Calnan triad, and their clefts have different morphological classifications and show different velopharyngeal closure rates. The surgery indications and surgical design for SMCP are controversial. Some scholars believed surgery should be determined based on the patients specific velopharyngeal function, whereas other scholars believed that surgery should be performed as early as possible. On the basis of literature review and clinical observation of SMCP for the past 10 years, this study analyzed the different types of SMCP and evaluations of velopharyngeal function, surgical indications, and speech therapy. To avoid excessive medical treatment and delayed surgery, we present the following suggestions for the timing of speech evaluation and surgical treatment of SMCP. First, surgery is only suitable for SMCP patients with VPI. Second, preoperative speech evaluation is required. Third, the appropriate operation time should not be earlier than 2 years old, considering that effective speech assessment can usually be performed around 2 years old in accordance with the rules of children’s speech and language development.

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    Cleft Lip and Palate
    Relationship between the facial grimace and articulation of patients with repaired cleft palate
    Aipiziguli Yakupu,Yaerken Aji,Wu Yanhui,Lu Lidan,Xu Hui
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  263-268.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021058
    Abstract ( 829 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (7937KB) ( 182 )   Save

    Objective To investigate the correlation between articulation of pressure-sensitive phonemes and nasal/facial grimace of patients with repaired cleft palate. Methods This study included 98 patients of repaired cleft palate with nasal/facia during speech. Each patient underwent subjective speech assessment. The incidence and distribution of nasal/facial grimace during pressure-sensitive phonemes were summarized focusing on manners and places of articulation. Results The articulation manners of the highest incidence rate for nasal grimace were stops 57.14% (56 cases), fricati-ves 51.02% (50 cases), and affricates 35.71% (35 cases), whereas those for facial grimace were 42.86% (42 cases), 38.78% (38 cases), and 30.61% (30 cases). The articulation area of the highest incidence rate for nasal and facial grimace was bilabial, the lowest incidence rate was guttural, and other consonants, including lingua-palatal, blade-alveolar, alveolar, velar, and supradental. Conclusion Facial grimace is the most common speech disorder of patients with cleft palate, occurring in all stops, fricatives, and affricates. With the same articulation manners, the incidence of facial grimace decreased as the articulation places moved back. The children with severe consonant loss and compensation had minimal facial grimace.

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    Research progress on breastfeeding infants with cleft lip and palate
    Wu Min,Shi Bing
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  269-273.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021055
    Abstract ( 776 )   HTML ( 50 )   PDF(pc) (1378KB) ( 393 )   Save

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for up to six months, but infants with cleft lip and palate may have difficulties. Cleft lip and palate cracks create insufficient negative pressure inside the baby’s mouth and lead to difficulties in catching the mother’s nipples to create a gas-sealed environment, causing sucking difficulties. Thus, breastfeeding babies with cleft lip and palate differ from ordinary babies in feeding methods and nutrition intake. This paper summarizes the current circumstances of breastfeeding for infants with cleft lips and palates, emphasizes the importance of breastfeeding, and enumerates the suitable methods of breastfeeding for infants with cleft lip and palate. This paper may serve as a clinical guide for breastfeeding infants with cleft lip and palate.

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    Prosthodontics
    Clinical consideration on the application of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing endocrown in molar restoration after root canal therapy
    Li Mixuezi,Zhang Chen
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  274-279.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021056
    Abstract ( 958 )   HTML ( 176 )   PDF(pc) (1324KB) ( 1148 )   Save

    The timely and reasonable tooth restoration for endodontically treated teeth is significant for the success of root canal treatment. With the development of bonding technology and restoration materials, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing endocrown is increasingly used in the restoration of endodontically treated molars. In particular, molars are characterized by relatively thick cervical dentin, large pulp cavity, and relatively low clinical crown, which provide favorable conditions for the adhesion and retention of the endocrown and can resist lateral forces. This article reviews the characteristics, advantages, mechanical properties, details of clinical operations of the endocrown, and clinical efficacy to provide a reference for clinical application.

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    Research progress on the selection and design of base materials in deep margin elevation
    Meng Xiuping,Hou Jianhua,Li Yiran,Sun Mengyao
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  280-286.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021049
    Abstract ( 1470 )   HTML ( 32 )   PDF(pc) (1400KB) ( 880 )   Save

    Large posterior defects, especially those extending below the cemento-enamel junction, are common. Deep margin elevation (DME) has become a less invasive technique for restoring these defects. However, critical factors, such as the type, height, and form of the base materials, could affect the marginal quality, fracture resistance of restorations, and the periodontal health. At present, a unified and standardized design principle and clinical operation procedure of DME for reference are lacking. This review summarizes the research progress on material selection, lifting height, and gingival wall edge shape design and stress distribution in DME.

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    Research progress on posterior occlusal veneer
    Shen Dongni,Shi Ying,Fu Baiping
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  287-291.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021030
    Abstract ( 1379 )   HTML ( 54 )   PDF(pc) (1344KB) ( 601 )   Save

    Occlusal veneer is made of a resin-bonded restoration with entire coverage of all cusps. With the advances in bonding techniques and restorative materials as well as the prevalence of minimally invasive dentistry, occlusal veneer has provided a conservative, promising alternative to the full crown, especially for the treatment of flat occlusal defect on vital tooth caused by abrasion and erosion. This study reviews the research progress on the definition, indications and contraindications, material selections, tooth preparations, adhesion, and complications of occlusal veneer to provide references for further research and applications.

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    An update of laser etching tooth tissue in direct adhesive technique
    Liu Min,Zhang Kuanshou,Liu Qingmei
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  292-296.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021038
    Abstract ( 391 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1379KB) ( 190 )   Save

    Dental adhesive techniques have evolved rapidly with the rising public requirement on aesthetics and the promotion of ‘minimum intervention’ in modern operative dentistry. Whether tooth tissue bonding after laser etching can replace acid etching has been studied at home and abroad. This paper reviews the adhesive properties of etched dental tissue with different laser parameters.

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    Original Articles
    Comparative study on the shaping ability of thermally treated continuous rotating nickel-titanium systems for severely curved simulated canals
    Wang Hongyuan,He Lu,Zhang Ru,Zheng Deqiang,Li Hong
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  297-304.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021053
    Abstract ( 910 )   HTML ( 78 )   PDF(pc) (9926KB) ( 1193 )   Save

    Objective This study aimed to compare the centring ability of three different thermally treated continuous rotating systems in severely curved simulated canals. Methods Sixty single-curved canals in resin blocks were prepared by using the Twisted File (group TF, R-phase),ProTaper Next (group PTN, M-wire), Hyflex CM (group HCM, CM-wire), and Mtwo (group Mtwo, traditional nickel-titanium alloy) systems (n=15), and the preparation time was recorded. The reduction in the working length after the preparation was measured. The weight change in the resin block was measured using an electronic balance. Images of pre- and post-instrumentation were recorded by digital camera and then superimposed by Photoshop. The amount of resin removed was measured by ImageJ. The differences between the groups were determined using one-way ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Bonferroni tests. Results No significant difference was observed in the changes in working length in the four groups (P>0.05). The weight change in the resin block was highest in the group Mtwo (P<0.05), and those of the three other groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). No significant difference was observed in the transportation of the canal at the apical foramen and in the coronal plane portion among four nickel-titanium instruments (P>0.05). In the apical part of the curvature, the group TF had the least root canal transportation (P<0.05), and the group Mtwo had higher root canal transportation than the three other groups in each measurement point (P<0.05). The Twisted File and the ProTaper Next could complete the preparation in a shorter time than the Mtwo and the Hyflex CM (P<0.05). Conclusion All tested files could prepare and maintain the original shape of severely curved canals effectively. This study showed that the Twisted file, ProTaper Next, and Hyflex CM systems had better centring ability than the Mtwo system and that the Twisted file system was demonstrated to have superior shaping ability compared with the others in the apical part.

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    Effect of nicotine on the growth of oral bacteria in single or mixed species
    Li Shijia,Chen Qiuyu,Zou Jing,Huang Ruijie
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  305-311.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021050
    Abstract ( 662 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (5490KB) ( 159 )   Save

    Objective This work aims to investigate the effect of nicotine on the growth of oral bacteria in single or mixed species. Methods Ten oral bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were grown in single or mixed species in the presence of different concentrations of nicotine. The number of bacteria in planktonic state and biofilm state was calculated and used to evaluate the regulation of nicotine on bacterial growth. Results In the most cases of the single-species model, nicotine promotes bacterial growth. However, in the mixed-species model, the nicotine and the presence of other bacteria regulate bacterial growth. The growth of cariogenic bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans, is significantly more active than that of other bacteria. Conclusion Nicotine increases the caries risk of smokers by shifting the oral flora in favor of caries.

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    Correlation between the depth of invasion measured by magnetic resonance imaging and cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma
    Li Ming,Yuan Zhenying,Nan Xinrong
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  312-317.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021036
    Abstract ( 1009 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1971KB) ( 199 )   Save

    Objective The correlation between the depth of invasion (DOI) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cervical lymph node metastasis of stage cN0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma was analysed to determine whether the DOI measured by MRI could be used as an independent predictor of cervical lymph node metastasis in stage cN0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Methods A total of 61 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma were selected after screening using inclusion and exclusion criteria. The relationships between the DOI and other clinicopathological factors (age, tumour site, tumour T stage, tumour differentiation and nerve invasion) and cervical lymph node metastasis measured by MRI in included patients. Results Amongst the 61 patients, 19 (31%) were positive for postoperative pathological cervical lymph node metastasis (pN+) and 42 (69%) were negative for cervical lymph node metastasis (pN0). Single logistic regression showed that the DOI, T stage and nerve invasion factors measured by MRI were correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the DOI measured by MRI was correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). The mean DOI of the 19 pN+ patients measured by MRI was (13.2±4.3) mm, whereas that of the 42 pN0 patients was (9.1±4.5) mm. The difference was statistically significant (T=3.36, P=0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the cut-off MRI DOI was 5.1 mm for predicting cervical lymph node metastasis in stage cN0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion The DOI measured by MRI is an independent factor in predicting cervical lymph node metastasis in stage cN0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma. When the DOI measured by MRI was greater than 5.1 mm, the risk of cervical lymph node metastasis increased in stage cN0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Case Report
    Treatment of verrucous leukoplakia recurred after surgical excision using photodynamic therapy: a case report
    Li Zheru,Dan Hongxia,Chen Qianming
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  318-321.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021052
    Abstract ( 2238 )   HTML ( 43 )   PDF(pc) (17084KB) ( 165 )   Save

    Oral leukoplakia (OLK) is a common type of potentially malignant disorder with certain risk of malignant transformation. Nonhomogeneous type such as verrucous type has higher rate of malignant transformation than homogeneous type. Traditional treatment cannot remove the lesion while retain the appearance and normal function of the treated area, and recurrence is very common. Photodynamic therapy is a minimally invasive treatment modality and has great potential in the treatment of OLK. In this manuscript, a case of verrucous OLK which recurred after surgical movement was treated with photodynamic therapy.

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    Reviews
    Research progress on biodegradable medical magnesium-based materials
    Chen Kenan,Guo Chuanbin
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  322-328.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021051
    Abstract ( 623 )   HTML ( 31 )   PDF(pc) (1423KB) ( 358 )   Save

    As biodegradable biomaterials, magnesium and its alloys have good biocompatibility and low density, have similar elastic modulus as that of bone, promote osteogenesis and have certain anti-infective ability. Therefore, these materials have broad application prospect in the field of biomedical materials. However, magnesium-based materials have some defects, such as rapid corrosion rate and loss of mechanical integrity because of pitting corrosion and gas generation, which limit their application. Current research has devoted to improve the corrosion and mechanical properties of magnesium alloys through alloying and surface modification. This article provides a brief review on the research progress of magnesium-based materials in the oral and maxillofacial field and other medical fields.

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    Influencing factors of the clinical application effect of ultrashort implant
    Lu Boyao,Yang Dawei,Liu Weiqing,Liang Xing
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  329-328.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021031
    Abstract ( 504 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF(pc) (1239KB) ( 493 )   Save

    During implant restoration, the clinician often faces insufficient residual alveolar bone for implant due to severe resorption, which adversely affects implant implantation. In recent years, more short and ultrashort implants are used in the clinic to solve this problem. However, the length, diameter, surface morphology, and treatment of implants as well as the patient’s bone condition, implant site, and prosthesis design influence the practical application of ultrashort implants. Thus, the clinical effect is not always satisfactory. Studying the factors influencing the clinical effect of ultrashort implants can effectively improve the survival rate, reduce the occurrence of complications, and achieve a more perfect implant treatment. This study reviews the factors related to the clinical application effect of ultrashort implants.

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    Advances in the loading methods of silver nanoparticles on the surface of titanium implants
    Zhu Junjin,Wang Jian.
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  334-340.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021021
    Abstract ( 481 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF(pc) (1228KB) ( 183 )   Save

    Titanium dental implants are commonly used in oral implant repair. However, because they lack intrinsic antibacterial activity, these implants may lead to peri-implantitis and even implant surgery failure when bacterial infection occurs. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), which are antibacterial agents with a wide antibacterial spectrum and low resistance, are commonly used to build antibacterial coatings on titanium implants and amplify their antimicrobial properties. Over the last decade, researchers have conducted numerous studies on the integration of Ag NPs into titanium implants to improve the antibacterial properties of the latter and avoid the cytotoxicity of the former by adjusting their synthesis methods or adding supportive ingredients. This paper reviews the current methods of loading Ag NPs on titanium implants and evaluates their advantages and disadvantages. Methods to increase Ag NPs and reduce their cytotoxicity are also summarized to provide new insights for future research.

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    Mechanism of sirtuin 1 in regulating periodontitis
    Zhou Feng,Chen Ye,Chen Chen,Zhang Yining,Geng Ruiman,Liu Ji
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  341-346.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021037
    Abstract ( 740 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF(pc) (1280KB) ( 162 )   Save

    Periodontitis is a species of inflammatory, destructive diseases that occur in periodontal tissues. As the starting factor of periodontitis, dental plaque mediates oxidative stress and secondary inflammation, which leads to tissue destruction, alveolar bone absorption, and tooth loosening and loss. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an important longevity factor, plays a vital role in antiaging and antistress applications, mediating apoptosis, autophagy, and regulating inflammation reaction. In recent years, several studies explored the relationship between SIRT1 and the occurrence and development of periodontitis from multiple perspectives, such as oxidative stress, inflammatory factors and pathways, and systemic diseases. This study reviews the relationship between SIRT1 and periodontitis, the possible mechanism, and its future clinical application to provide reference.

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    Research progress on effects of electronic cigarette exposure on periodontal health
    Shen Yifen,Liu Chao,Tang Ying,Gu Yongchun
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  347-353.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021048
    Abstract ( 1401 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF(pc) (1401KB) ( 582 )   Save

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for periodontal diseases. Over thousands of hazardous com-ponents are present in cigarette smoke during combustion, which may injure the periodontal tissues and cells. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are a novel type of tobacco product. It delivers nicotine through an inhalable aerosol, which is analogous to the mainstream smoke of a conventional cigarette and is generated from electronically heated and aerosolized E-liquids (containing a mixture of nicotine, flavorings, diluents, or other additives). E-cigs are considered less harmful and safer than traditional cigarettes because they do not produce combusted smoke. Therefore, e-cigs have become increasingly popular worldwide. However, only few studies extensively evaluated the long- and short-term effects of e-cigs on the periodontal health, as compared with the abundant detailed investigations on the traditional cigarettes. This article aims to review the research progress on the effects of e-cigs exposure on periodontal health.

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    Research progress on maxillary protraction methods and auxiliary maxillary expansion for skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion
    Zhang Shizhen,Lai Wenli
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  354-361.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021039
    Abstract ( 662 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF(pc) (1457KB) ( 435 )   Save

    Maxillary protraction is an effective method for the early treatment of maxillary deficiency. The application of mini-implant anchorage enhances the bone effect of maxillary protraction and improves the stability of early correction. Maxillary expansion activates or opens maxillary sutures, and whether or not the auxiliary maxillary expansion enhances maxillary protraction has attracted the attention of clinicians. To provide reference for the clinical application of this technique, this article reviews the selection of early treatment for skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion, the effectiveness of alternative protraction methods, and the influence of maxillary arch expansion on maxillary protraction.

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    Research progress on multiple idiopathic cervical root resorption
    Wang Ningxiang,Liu Shuai,Lin Liangyuan,Wu Juan
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  362-366.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021047
    Abstract ( 1208 )   HTML ( 174 )   PDF(pc) (8269KB) ( 1108 )   Save

    Multiple idiopathic cervical root resorption (MICRR) is an aggressive and rare form of external root resorption that occurs at the cervical region of teeth that close to the cementoenamel junction and can affect multiple teeth (a minimum of 3) throughout the entire dentition. However, the etiology of this resorption remains elusive. No obvious clinical manifestation can be observed in the early stage of the disease, but the absorption may progress rapidly in a short time. Patients with this condition avoids biting because of pain and loosening of teeth. The affected crown separates from the root and leads to extraction. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to MICRR. This paper systematically reviews the pathogeny, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of MICRR and provides a reference for clinicians.

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    Diagnosis and treatment of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis
    Fu Zhuohui,Tan Xuelian,Huang Dingming
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (3):  367-372.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021057
    Abstract ( 3045 )   HTML ( 632 )   PDF(pc) (1292KB) ( 3103 )   Save

    Given their close anatomical relationship, dental infection and oral operation may cause maxillary sinusitis. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis accounts for about 40% of all maxillary sinusitis, most commonly occurring in people over 40. Maxillary sinusitis and odontogenic infection or stimulation should be considered during the diagnosis and treatment of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. However, the diagnosis and treatment of this condition can be difficult because of the interaction of the two disciplines. This review comprehensively summarizes the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and other common maxillary sinus diseases. This paper may serve as a reference for dentists to distinguish maxillary sinus mucosal abnormalities and deal with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.

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