Int J Stomatol ›› 2021, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (6): 621-628.doi: 10.7518/gjkq.2021117

• Expert Forum •     Next Articles

Clinical diagnosis, treatment, and management strategies of common oral infectious disease during pregnancy

Liu Chengcheng(),Ding Yi()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Dept. of Periodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
  • Received:2021-04-25 Revised:2021-09-02 Online:2021-11-01 Published:2021-10-28
  • Contact: Yi Ding E-mail:liuchengcheng519@163.com;yiding2000@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(82071121)

Abstract:

Oral infectious disease is one of the most common diseases during pregnancy. However, some dentists choose to refuse or postpone treatment of oral diseases during pregnancy due to concerns about safety and uncertain outcomes. As an important part of pregnancy health, proper intervention on oral diseases during pregnancy is beneficial to the physical and mental health of patients and may reduce the mother-to-child transmission of oral pathogens. Therefore, under the premise of following the principles of safety, necessity, comfort, and multidisciplinary cooperation, scientific and standardized management of oral infectious diseases is thus recommended. This strategy requires choosing the right time, according to the specific physiological characteristics of the patient during pregnancy. Prevention and treatment should also be carried out. In this paper, we summarize existing relevant literature and evidence and analyze the main points of the clinical management of common oral infectious diseases during pregnancy. We aim to provide a reference for the implementation of safe and favorable management decisions for oral infections during pregnancy.

Key words: pregnancy, oral infections, periodontal infection, dental caries, pulp infection, pericoronitis of the third molar

CLC Number: 

  • R78

TrendMD: 
[1] 冯希平. 中国居民口腔健康状况——第四次中国口腔健康流行病学调查报告[G]//中华口腔医学会口腔预防医学专业委员会. 2018年中华口腔医学会第十八次口腔预防医学学术年会论文汇编. 西安: 中华口腔医学会, 2018: 2.
Feng XP. Oral health status of Chinese residents-the fourth epidemiological survey report on oral heal-th in China[G]//Professional Committee of Preventi-ve Dentistry of Chinese Stomatological Association. Compilation of papers of the 18th Academic Annual Meeting of Preventive Dentistry of Chinese Stomatological Association in 2018. Xi’an: Chinese Stomatological Association, 2018: 2.
[2] Vamos CA, Thompson EL, Avendano M, et al. Oral health promotion interventions during pregnancy: a systematic review[J]. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2015, 43(5):385-396.
doi: 10.1111/cdoe.2015.43.issue-5
[3] Committee Opinion No. 569: oral health care during pregnancy and through the lifespan[J]. Obstet Gynecol, 2013, 122(2 Pt 1):417-422.
doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000433007.16843.10
[4] Ye CC, Xia ZY, Tang J, et al. Unculturable and culturable periodontal-related bacteria are associated with periodontal inflammation during pregnancy and with preterm low birth weight delivery[J]. Sci Rep, 10(1):15807.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-58399-4
[5] Ye C, Katagiri S, Miyasaka N, et al. The anti-phospholipid antibody-dependent and independent effe-cts of periodontopathic bacteria on threatened preterm labor and preterm birth[J]. Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2013, 288(1):65-72.
doi: 10.1007/s00404-013-2741-z
[6] Daalderop LA, Wieland BV, Tomsin K, et al. Perio-dontal disease and pregnancy outcomes: overview of systematic reviews[J]. JDR Clin Trans Res, 2018, 3(1):10-27.
doi: 10.1177/2380084417731097 pmid: 30370334
[7] Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Middleton P, Esposito M, et al. Treating periodontal disease for preventing adverse birth outcomes in pregnant women[J]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017, 6(6):CD005297.
[8] Caughey AB. Creasy and resnik’s maternal-fetal me-dicine: principles and practice[J]. JAMA, 2009, 302(19):2154.
[9] Lawrence HP. Salivary markers of systemic disease: noninvasive diagnosis of disease and monitoring of general health[J]. J Can Dent Assoc, 2002, 68(3):170-174.
[10] Figuero E, Carrillo-De-albornoz A, Herrera D, et al. Gingival changes during pregnancy:Ⅰ. influence of hormonal variations on clinical and immunological parameters[J]. J Clin Periodontol, 2010, 37(3):220-229.
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2009.01516.x pmid: 20070862
[11] Emmatty R, Mathew JJ, Kuruvilla J. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: a clinical and microbiologic study[J]. J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2013, 17(1):47-51.
doi: 10.4103/0972-124X.107474 pmid: 23633772
[12] Cho GJ, Kim SY, Lee HC, et al. Association between dental caries and adverse pregnancy outcomes[J]. Sci Rep, 2020, 10(1):5309.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-62306-2
[13] Hartnett E, Haber J, Krainovich-Miller B, et al. Oral health in pregnancy[J]. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs, 2016, 45(4):565-573.
doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2016.04.005
[14] Yenen Z, Ataçağ T. Oral care in pregnancy[J]. J Tur-kish German Gynecol Assoc, 2019, 20(4):264-268.
[15] Task Force on Periodontal Treatment of Pregnant Women, American Academy of Periodontology. A-merican Academy of Periodontology statement regarding periodontal management of the pregnant patient[J]. J Periodontol, 2004, 75(3):495.
doi: 10.1902/jop.2004.75.3.495
[16] Gadzhula NG, Cherepakha OL, Lezhnova OV. Efficiency of treatment of inflammatory periodontal di-seases in pregnant women[J]. Wiad Lek, 2021, 74(5):1065-1068.
doi: 10.36740/WiadLek
[17] Radnai M, Pál A, Novak T, et al. The possible effect of basic periodontal treatment on the outcome of pre-gnancy[J]. Fogorv Sz, 2008, 101(5):179-185.
pmid: 19039919
[18] Parajuli R, Maharjan S. Unusual presentation of oral pyogenic granulomas: a review of two cases[J]. Clin Case Rep, 2018, 6(4):690-693.
doi: 10.1002/ccr3.2018.6.issue-4
[19] Cardoso JA, Spanemberg JC, Cherubini K, et al. Oral granuloma gravidarum: a retrospective study of 41 cases in Southern Brazil[J]. J Appl Oral Sci, 2013, 21(3):215-218.
doi: 10.1590/1679-775720130001
[20] Sawabe M, Aoki A, Komaki M, et al. Gingival tissue healing following Er: YAG laser ablation compared to electrosurgery in rats[J]. Lasers Med Sci, 2015, 30(2):875-883.
doi: 10.1007/s10103-013-1478-z
[21] Chacko M, Bhide SV. Carcinogenicity, perinatal carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of low dose metronidazole (MNZ) in Swiss mice[J]. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 1986, 112(2):135-140.
pmid: 3771623
[22] Czeizel AE, Rockenbauer M. A population based case-control teratologic study of oral metronidazole treatment during pregnancy[J]. Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 1998, 105(3):322-327.
pmid: 9532994
[23] Weiner CP, Buhimschi C. 妊娠哺乳期用药指南[M]. 孙路路, 译. 2版. 北京: 人民军医出版社, 2014: 580.
Weiner CP, Buhimschi C. Medication guidelines for pregnancy and lactation[M]. Sun LL, Translated. 2nd ed. Beijing: People’s Military Medical Publishing House, 2014: 580.
[24] 叶畅畅, 赵蕾, 王冬青, 等. 妊娠期牙周疾病的防治策略[J]. 国际口腔医学杂志, 2018, 45(5):501-508.
Ye CC, Zhao L, Wang DQ, et al. The treatment stra-tegy of periodontal disease during pregnancy[J]. Int J Stomatol, 2018, 45(5):501-508.
[25] Söderling E, Isokangas P, Pienihäkkinen K, et al. Influence of maternal xylitol consumption on mother-child transmission of mutans streptococci: 6-year follow-up[J]. Caries Res, 2001, 35(3):173-177.
pmid: 11385196
[26] Dye BA, Hsu KL, Afful J. Prevalence and measurement of dental caries in young children[J]. Pediatr Dent, 2015, 37(3):200-216.
[27] Russell SL, Mayberry LJ. Pregnancy and oral heal-th: a review and recommendations to reduce gaps in practice and research[J]. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs, 2008, 33(1):32-37.
[28] Silk H, Douglass AB, Douglass JM, et al. Oral heal-th during pregnancy[J]. Am Fam Physician, 2008, 77(8):1139-1144.
[29] Kloetzel MK, Huebner CE, Milgrom P. Referrals for dental care during pregnancy[J]. J Midwifery Wo-men’s Heal, 2011, 56(2):110-117.
[30] 李祥伟, 张颖丽, 管丽华, 等. Carisolv(伢典)化学机械法微创治疗妊娠期龋病的去腐效果[J]. 中国妇幼保健, 2006, 21(12):1644-1645.
Li XW, Zhang YL, Guan LH, et al. Carisolv chemical mechanical minimally invasive treatment of dental caries during pregnancy[J]. Matern Child Heal Care China, 2006, 21(12):1644-1645.
[31] Zanata RL, Navarro MF, Barbosa SH, et al. Clinical evaluation of three restorative materials applied in a minimal intervention caries treatment approach[J]. J Public Health Dent, 2003, 63(4):221-226.
pmid: 14682645
[32] Barata TJ, Bresciani E, Mattos MC, et al. Comparison of two minimally invasive methods on the longevity of glass ionomer cement restorations: short-term results of a pilot study[J]. J Appl Oral Sci, 2008, 16(2):155-160.
doi: 10.1590/S1678-77572008000200014
[33] Berge TLL, Lygre GB, Lie SA, et al. Polymer-based dental filling materials placed during pregnancy and risk to the foetus[J]. BMC Oral Health, 2018, 18(1):144.
doi: 10.1186/s12903-018-0608-1
[34] Jirau-Colón H, González-Parrilla L, Martinez-Jimé-nez J, et al. Rethinking the dental amalgam dilemma: an integrated toxicological approach[J]. Int J En-viron Res Public Heal, 2019, 16(6):1036.
[35] Achtari MD, Georgakopoulou EA, Afentoulide N. Dental care throughout pregnancy: what a dentist must know[J]. Oral Health Dent Manag, 2012, 11(4):169-176.
pmid: 23208593
[36] Kandan PM, Menaga V, Kumar RR. Oral health in pregnancy (guidelines to gynaecologists, general phy-sicians & oral health care providers)[J]. J Pak Med Assoc, 2011, 61(10):1009-1014.
[37] Kurien S, Kattimani VS, Sriram RR, et al. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry[J]. J Int Oral Health, 2013, 5(1):88-97.
[38] Riley L, Cahill A, Beigi R, et al. Improving safe and effective use of drugs in pregnancy and lactation: workshop summary[J]. Amer J Perinatol, 2017, 34(8):826-832.
doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1598070
[39] Lee JM, Shin TJ. Use of local anesthetics for dental treatment during pregnancy; safety for parturient[J]. J Dent Anesth Pain Med, 2017, 17(2):81-90.
doi: 10.17245/jdapm.2017.17.2.81
[40] 杨湘晖, 李金荣. 孕妇口腔疾病的药物选择[J]. 国外医学·妇幼保健分册, 2000, 11(2):63-65.
Yang XH, Li JR. Drug selection of oral diseases in pregnant women[J]. Foreign Med Sci (Sect Matern Child Heal), 2000, 11(2):63-65.
[41] 李宏宇, 周雅川, 周学东, 等. 妊娠期药物动力学及口腔感染性疾病的安全用药[J]. 华西口腔医学杂志, 2018, 36(3):319-324.
Li HY, Zhou YC, Zhou XD, et al. Pharmacokinetics and drug safety of oral infectious disease during pre-gnancy[J]. West China J Stomatol, 2018, 36(3):319-324.
[1] Fan Yu,Cheng Lei. Smoking affects the oral microenvironment and its role in the progression of dental caries [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2021, 48(5): 609-613.
[2] Yang Zhilei,Liu Baoying. Research progress on the microecology of dental plaque in caries [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2020, 47(5): 506-514.
[3] Wang Xiaobo,Lin Shiyao,Li Xia. Research progress on the relationship between mother and childhood dental caries [J]. Int J Stomatol, 2019, 46(4): 469-474.
[4] Changchang Ye, Lei Zhao, Dongqing Wang, Xiaoli Wang, Haiyan Wang, Meng You, Ping Huang, Yafei Wu. The treatment strategy of periodontal disease during pregnancy [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2018, 45(5): 501-508.
[5] Jing Wang,Yan Wang,Chuandong Wang,Ruijie Huang,Yan Tian,Wei Hu,Jing Zou. Application of liquorice and its extract to the prevention and treatment of oral infections and associated diseases [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2018, 45(5): 546-552.
[6] Ding Jie, Song Guangtai.. Clinical application of minimally invasive techniques in the management of children’s dental caries [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2018, 45(4): 473-479.
[7] Guan Shuyuan, Zhou Yuan, Zhou Xuedong, Zheng Liwei. Preconception oral health care and genetic counseling [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2018, 45(3): 324-330.
[8] Gao Xuebin, Zhang Qi, Li Jing, Bi Ye, Yang Hua, Huang Yang. A clinical study on the choice of etching agent for pit and fissure sealing in younger children [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2017, 44(4): 433-436.
[9] Zheng Liwei1, Zou Jing1, Xia Bin2, Liu Yingqun3, Huang Yang4, Zhao Jin5. Restoration of preformed metal crown on dental caries of primary molars [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2017, 44(2): 125-129.
[10] Wu Xinyu1, Cai Qiaoyi1, Zhou Yikun1, Zou Yong2. Clinical parameters and risk factors of pregnancy gingivitis [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2017, 44(2): 200-203.
[11] Wang Yuxia, Zhou Xuedong, Li Mingyun.. A review on the role of Veillonella in caries and its interaction with Streptococcus [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2017, 44(2): 195-199.
[12] Feng Ruzhou, Liu Juan, Lü Changhai . Fluoride application for dental caries prevention and control in children and adolescents [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2016, 43(1): 118-.
[13] Li Xinyue1, Lü Lijuan2, Zhang Liang3, Ye Ning4.. Genetic basis of periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcome [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2015, 42(6): 689-693.
[14] Fang Li, Liu Yuan, Yang Ran, Zou Jing. Comparison of Streptococcus mutans in saliva before and after dental caries filling with resin-based composite [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2015, 42(1): 28-30.
[15] He Ping, Keiichi Sasaki, Kostas Zygogiannis, Bao Chongyun. The treatment of patients with oral disease during pregnancy [J]. Inter J Stomatol, 2014, 41(5): 500-509.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(06): .
[2] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(05): .
[3] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(05): .
[4] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(05): .
[5] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(04): .
[6] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(04): .
[7] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(04): .
[8] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(04): .
[9] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 1999, 26(04): .
[10] . [J]. Foreign Med Sci: Stomatol, 2004, 31(02): 146 -148 .