Table of Content

    01 May 2024, Volume 51 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
    Expert Forum
    Clinical strategies for dental bleaching
    Min Zhang, Jiyao Li
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  249-255.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024045
    Abstract ( 1584 )   HTML ( 35 )   PDF(pc) (2525KB) ( 397 )   Save

    Vital tooth bleaching is one of the effective methods for the minimally invasive treatment of discolored tooth. Tooth bleaching techniques is simpler than other dental treatments, but challenges are still encountered in clinical practice. For a successful treatment, some key issues must be addressed through doctor-patient communication before treatment, and personalized treatment plans based on the etiology and difficulty of cases and the planned prevention and management of potential clinical complications during treatment must be considered. This article combines literature review and the author’s clinical experience to discuss clinical strategies for tooth-whitening treatment, aiming to provide a reference for dental bleaching treatment in clinical settings.

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    Oral tissue regeneration
    Research progress on the role of exosomes derived from lipopolysaccharides and hypoxic preconditioning in the repair and regeneration of tissues
    San Chen,Runze Yang,Jiayuan Wu
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  256-264.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024035
    Abstract ( 105 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (856KB) ( 122 )   Save

    Exosomes are characterized by low immunogenicity, stable functional properties, and non-cytotoxicity and are effective for the promotion of tissue regeneration. The use of exosomes opens up a wide range of prospects in the field of tissue repair and regeneration. Exosomes from pre-treated sources possess enhanced biological properties compared with exosomes from culture alone. Exosomes from different pretreatment methods may have different biological functions. Various pretreatment methods, including pretreatment with lipopolysaccharides and hypoxia, can produce high-qua-lity exosomes. However, few studies have investigated on the application of exosomes derived from these pretreatment methods in the field of tissue repair and regeneration. This article describes the role of exosomes in tissue repair and regeneration, introduces the functional advantages of exosomes derived from lipopolysaccharide and hypoxic preconditio-ning, and focuses on the potential of such exosomes in tissue repair and regeneration. The effects of exosomes on angiogenesis, bone regeneration, cartilage regeneration, neuroprotection, and oral tissue regeneration are discussed. This work provides new ideas for optimizing tissue regeneration.

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    Periodontal ligament stem cells regulate bone remodeling under mechanical stress
    Xing Han,Yinghui Li,Wenwen Li,Shukui Xu,Wensheng Ma
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  265-277.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024033
    Abstract ( 112 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (4262KB) ( 121 )   Save

    Mechanical stress-induced periodontal tissue remodeling plays an important role in the regulation of oral homeostasis. The periodontal ligament provides a microenvironment support for orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Perio-dontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), an important mesenchymal stem cell in the periodontal ligament, play an important role in regulating periodontal tissue modeling. This paper reviews research progress in the regulation of bone remode-ling by PDLSCs under mechanical stimulation and emphasizes that PDLSCs can sense mechanical stimulation through various pathways. This mesenchymal stem cell type has multi-directional differentiation ability and immune regulation capability. PDLSC regulates bone remodeling by regulating the activities of skeletal system cells such as osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts and can indirectly affect bone remodeling by regulating the activities of the immune system. This study will provide a basis for further exploration of the regulatory effects of mechanical forces on bone remodeling, such as OTM, and enrich the functional roles of PDLSCs in the field of bone remodeling.

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    Research progress on mechanism and drug treatment of orofacial muscle regeneration and fibrosis
    Jinfeng Dou,Xu Cheng,Bing Shi
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  278-287.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024041
    Abstract ( 94 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (2002KB) ( 93 )   Save

    Patients with congenital maxillofacial deformities such as cleft lip and palate are often characterized by the abnormal structure and function of the orofacial muscles. After facial plastic surgeries, orofacial muscles usually exhibit the characteristics of impaired myogenesis and excessive fibrosis, which greatly limits the recovery of orofacial function. Orofacial muscles are skeletal muscle subsets with unique evolutionary and developmental characteristics. The occurrence of orofacial muscle fibrosis is related to its unique embryonic development source and inherent regeneration characteristics. Muscle satellite cell and fibroadipogenic progenitors are the two main cell types in the skeletal muscle tissue that are responsible for the myogenic process and fibrogenic process, respectively. Myogenesis-fibrogenesis imbalance is an important factor in orofacial muscle fibrosis. A variety of antifibrosis drugs are expected to improve skeletal muscle fibrosis effectively. This review focuses on the specificity of orofacial muscle development and regeneration, the cytological basis of orofacial muscle fibrosis, and the treatment of orofacial muscle fibrosis to clarify the unique mechanism of orofacial muscle regeneration and to develop the precise treatment for orofacial muscle regeneration.

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    Original Articles
    Correlation study of plasma cell-free extra-mitochondrial mitochondria DNA and periodontitis clinical parameters
    Zaimu Yang,Pei Cao,Zhenhua Liu,Qingxian Luan
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  288-295.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024044
    Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1836KB) ( 110 )   Save

    Objective Plasma cell-free extra-cellular mitochondrial DNA (cf-exmtDNA) shows pro-inflammatory potential. This study aims to investigate the correlation between cf-exmtDNA and baseline periodontitis clinical parameters in patients in general health. Methods A total of 78 participants aged 18-45 years were enrolled: 11 periodontal healthy volunteers, 11 patients with gingivitis, and 56 patients with periodontitis. Baseline periodontal index, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and baseline fasting blood glucose (FBG) were examined and recorded. Anticoagulated venous blood (4 mL) was collected, and cf-mtDNA was extracted by secondary centrifugation. cf-exmtDNA concentration was measured through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Different states of periodontal inflammation were compared in terms of plasma cf-exmtDNA copy number, and the relationship among plasma cf-exmtDNA, mean probing depth (mPD), mean clinical attachment level (mCAL), mean bleeding index (mBI), mean plaque index, age, FBG, and BMI were examined through correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Results Patients with periodontitis had significantly higher plasma cf-exmtDNA levels than the healthy volunteers (P=0.042). The overall plasma cf-exmtDNA was significantly positively correlated with age (P=0.023), mPD (P<0.001), mCAL (P=0.006), and mBI (P=0.026). Multiple regression analysis showed that plasma cf-exmtDNA level was significantly dependent on mPD. Conclusion In the general population aged 18–45, patients with periodontitis had significantly higher plasma cf-exmt-DNA level than the healthy volunteers, and plasma cf-exmtDNA concentration was significantly positively correlated with age, mPD, mCAL, and mBI.

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    Differences in anxiety and depression in patients with different subtypes of temporomandibular disorders
    Jing Zhang,Yisi Zhong,Yunhao Zheng,Li Zhang,Xin Xiong
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  296-302.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024039
    Abstract ( 114 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1370KB) ( 123 )   Save

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the differences in anxiety and depression and their associated factors in various subcategories of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to provide a basis for multidisciplinary treatment of TMD patients. Methods Sociodemographic information such as age, gender, education level, and per capita monthly household income of TMD patients were collected. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Based on the DC/TMD diagnostic criteria, TMD was classified into three subtypes, namely, painful TMD (PT), intra-articular TMD (IT), and combined TMD (CT), which has PT and IT. R 4.2.2 was used for data processing and statistical analysis. Results Among the 362 TMD patients included in this study, 131 (36.2%) had anxiety and 153 (42.3%) had depression. A significant positive correlation existed between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores in patients with TMD (r=0.733, P<0.001; ρ=0.710, P<0.001). GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores in patients with CT were significantly higher than those in patients with IT (P<0.001, P=0.002). GAD-7 scores were significantly negatively associated with male gender, per capita monthly household income of 3 000-6 000 RMB and higher than 6 000 RMB, and education level of college or bachelor’s degree. Meanwhile, GAD-7 scores were significantly positively associated with the CT subtype (P<0.05). PHQ-9 scores were significantly negatively associated with age, male gender, and per capita monthly household income higher than 6 000 RMB, whereas they were significantly positively associated with the CT subtype (P<0.05). Conclusion Approximately 40% of TMD patients had anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression in patients with painful TMD should be given attention in clinical practice, and psychological interventions and multidisciplinary treatments may have better therapeutic outcomes for patients with painful TMD. Anxiety and depression in young patients, female patients, and patients with low income and education level were also noteworthy.

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    Effect of CXCL chemokines on the diagnosis and prognosis of head and neck quamous cell carcinoma
    Xu Wu,Lintai Da,Nite Su,Duo Shang,Xing’an Zhou,Delehei Bateer
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  303-309.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024012
    Abstract ( 94 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (2762KB) ( 92 )   Save

    Objective This study investigated the expression levels of CXCL chemokines in head and neck cancer and their value as diagnostic and prognostic markers. Methods Public databases were used in the analysis of various abnormally expressed CXCL factors in head and neck cancer and their correlation with the poor prognoses of patients with head and neck cancer, and the correlation between CXCL family and immune factor infiltration was determined. Results Compared with normal tissues, CXCL is differentially expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tissues and pathological stages, and it is closely related to long overall survival (OS) and immune cell infiltration in patients with HNSCC. CXCL chemokine gene function in HNSCC is mainly concentrated in chemokine activity. The KEGG pathway is mainly concentrated in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and the CXCL family has a certain mutation rate in HNSCC. Conclusion Tumor bioinformatics analysis showed that the expression levels of the CXCL family in HNSCC tissues are different from those in normal tissues and correlated with immune cell infiltration and tumor prognosis, showing potential as prognostic markers for HNSCC and gene therapy targets.

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    Application of miniscrew implants in orthodontics: a literature review
    Zining Chen,Hao Wang,Qianwen Li,Ningrui Zhao,Xuedong Wang
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  310-318.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024034
    Abstract ( 178 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (927KB) ( 172 )   Save

    Miniscrew implants are widely utilized in orthodontics, and their usage varies substantially among different countries. This review summarizes the methodology of related research as well as the advantages, indications, and complications of orthodontic miniscrew implants. Factors influencing the usage of orthodontic miniscrew implants are determined. The utilization rate of orthodontic miniscrew implants ranges from 43.7% to 93.3%. However, inconsistent criteria preclude us from reaching further conclusions. Orthodontic miniscrew implants are suitable for diverse conditions, such as anterior retraction and posterior intrusion, which contribute to the enhancement of anchorage and the reduction of dependence on patient compliance. Frequently occurring complications include failure of orthodontic miniscrew implants, soft tissue reactions, and root damage. Factors including orthodontists ’ age, gender, and educational background as well as the cost of treatment and the patients ’ acceptance of orthodontic miniscrew implants may have different effects on their usage. Nevertheless, similar research in China is lacking.

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    Computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing of prefabricated personalized allografts in bone augmentation surgery
    Yuxin Zhong, Haiyang Yu
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  319-325.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024050
    Abstract ( 494 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (793KB) ( 97 )   Save

    Computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing and molding technology can preform the target bone block, which is suitable for the recipient area. It is often used in complex alveolar ridge augmentation surgery. The digital design and production of personalized allogeneic bone block can prevent the traditional step of chair-side bone block forming, increase the efficiency of clinical operation, improve the precision of graft adaptation, and facilitate the vascularization and osseointegration of the graft. This technology shows clinical application potential in bone augmentation. Therefore, this article reviews the current application status of customized allogenous bone blocks in implant bone augmentation surgery and further discusses its existing problems and challenges.

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    Original Articles
    Research progress on combined orthodontic-periodontal treatment
    Dongna Li, Haoyan Zhai, Chunyan Liu
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  326-336.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024049
    Abstract ( 129 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (899KB) ( 146 )   Save

    The prevalence rate of periodontal diseases is high among adults. The proportion of adults seeking orthodontic treatment increases every year; therefore, the relationship between periodontal health status and orthodontic treatment has become the focus of clinicians. The mode of combined orthodontic-periodontal treatment has gradually formed. For severe periodontitis with pathologic tooth migration, orthodontic treatment can improve and stabilize the effect of conventional periodontal treatment. Conventional periodontal treatment can prevent periodontal tissue risks associated with or-thodontic treatment, ensure the health of periodontal tissue, and contribute to the balance, stability, and aesthetics of or-thodontic treatment. This article briefly demonstrates the research progress on combined orthodontic-periodontal treatment in promoting periodontal health from three aspects: the relationship between orthodontic treatment and periodontal health, the application of orthodontic treatment in periodontal system treatment, and periodontal escort for orthodontic treatment.

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    Application progress on finite element analysis in endocrown restoration
    Youhui Cao,Xuemei Bao
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  337-343.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024051
    Abstract ( 1219 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF(pc) (918KB) ( 138 )   Save

    The preservation of low occlusal-gingival distance, few residual dental tissues, and dead pulp molar after root canal treatment has good prospects given the updating and upgrading of adhesive materials, the rapid progress of radical pulp technology, and the rapid development of restorative production technology. The preservation of natural teeth and the continuation of residual crown function have made the repairing concept of endocrown accepted and recognized by clinicians. Stress analysis using finite element method has the advantages of being efficient, accurate, and reproducible. This paper reviews the application of finite element method in endocrown repair and discusses precautions in endocrown repair.

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    Research progress on intraoral wound dressings
    Yutang Ding, Jian Wang
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  344-352.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024038
    Abstract ( 138 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (832KB) ( 150 )   Save

    As the gate of the human body, the oral cavity tends to be exposed to physiochemical and biological factors that damage mucosal integrity, bringing inconvenience to patients’ daily lives. A variety of wound dressings with adhesion, hemostasis, drug loading, and antibacterial functions have been developed and applied for oral wound treatment. These novel dressing materials are superior to traditional treatments in terms of use, pain relief, and wound healing. This review summarizes the types and application scenarios of existing intraoral wound dressings. The design features and challenges have been discussed, and some future study directions are suggested.

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    Research progress on artificial saliva
    Yafei Zhen, Xian Peng, Binwu Ying, Ping Zhang, Xuedong Zhou, Ga Liao
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  353-361.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024048
    Abstract ( 135 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1222KB) ( 195 )   Save

    Saliva is a slightly acidic oral fluid, which is primarily composed of water. It also contains a small amount of inorganic ions and rich proteins, which results in its special rheological and biological properties, good biological functions, and important role in maintaining oral and systemic health. Xerostomia caused by decreased saliva flow or altered saliva composition can lead to clinically serious oral health imbalances, manifested by burning in the mouth; changes in taste; difficulty in speaking, chewing, and swallowing; and an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal disease, which seriously affect the quality of life of patients. The prevalence of xerostomia is approximately 20%, which increases to about 50% in the elderly population aged >75 years. With the increase in the aging population, xerostomia has caused a health burden that cannot be ignored. Artificial saliva is an oral care product developed to mimic the properties and functions of natural saliva, which is an important method of symptomatic treatment of xerostomia. Safe and effective artificial saliva has a positive effect and application potential in maintaining the oral health of the elderly. The development of artificial saliva begins with a comprehensive understanding of the properties of natural saliva. This review systematically depicted the composition and biological functions of natural saliva and described in detail the rheological behavior, tribological properties, biological characteristics, and clinical application performance of artificial saliva to promote the development of novel artificial saliva.

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    Research progress on perineural invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma
    Bingzhi Li, Yunkun Liu, Wenxuan Wang, Zeyu Hou, Jinru Tang, Longjiang Li
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  362-367.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024043
    Abstract ( 88 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (804KB) ( 108 )   Save

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant tumor in the head and neck. OSCC seriously hampers patients’ life and health because of its invasion, metastasis, and recurrence characteristics. Perineural invasion (PNI) is a common but occult pathologic characteristic of OSCC that reduces the survival rate of patients. However, the clinical understanding of this high-rick biological behavior ability and mechanism remains insufficient. Recent studies have found that perineural invasion is a reciprocal communication between the tumor and nerves, which involves a variety of cells and molecules, and may become the target of future therapeutic intervention. This article reviews the research progress on the molecular pathological mechanism, prognostic value, and treatment of PNI in OSCC.

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    Research progress on psychological factors in the pathogenesis of halitosis
    Congcong Li, Man Zhao, Chuanxia Liu
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  368-373.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024042
    Abstract ( 109 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (755KB) ( 124 )   Save

    Halitosis has always been prevalent in humans, affecting nearly half of the world's population. With the improvement of people’s health awareness, it has recently become a health concern among the public. Studies have shown that psychological factors were closely related to the occurrence and development of halitosis. Negative emotions such as anxiety and depression might directly lead to delusional halitosis while indirectly promoting the generation of volatile sulfur compounds in the oral cavity through affecting oral microbiota, periodontitis, saliva, immune function, and systemic diseases. This article provides a summary of research on direct and indirect correlations on the psychological factors in the pathogenesis of halitosis in recent years to improve the understanding of clinical doctors and provide some inspiration for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with halitosis in the future.

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    Recent advances in regulation of congenitally absent teeth by homeobox genes
    Weijie Zhang, Xianghui Liu, Yu’e Yang
    Int J Stomatol. 2024, 51 (3):  374-380.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2024046
    Abstract ( 94 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (857KB) ( 113 )   Save

    The homeobox gene is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor containing homologous domain, and its encoded transcription regulatory factor plays an important role in organogenesis. Several subfamilies of the homeobox gene family are involved in the development of the maxillofacial region in vertebrates, and their abnormal expression is closely related to the occurrence of congenitally missing teeth. With the development of molecular genetics, genetic engineering, and human genome project, the study of newly discovered homeobox genes, mutation types, and expression patterns is becoming the main research direction of congenitally missing teeth diseases. This study reviews the literature on the latest research progress of homeobox genes in recent years, the expression patterns and molecular mechanisms of homeobox genes related to congenitally missing teeth, and the application prospect of homologous box gene in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of congenital missing teeth.

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