Table of Content

    01 March 2021, Volume 48 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Expert Forum
    My opinion on the generations of dental zirconia materials
    Wan Qianbing
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  125-128.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021023
    Abstract ( 1762 )   HTML ( 399 )   PDF(pc) (1511KB) ( 1886 )   Save

    Given their high biocompatibility and esthetic potential, zirconia materials are a suitable alternative to metal-based restorations for many indications within restorative dentistry. Zirconia frameworks are usually veneered with veneering ceramics, but the latter is easily broken from the former. Recent years have demonstrated a clear trend toward monolithic zirconia restorations in dental clinics. Because of the great number of options currently available, selection of the most suitable restorative zirconia materials in everyday clinical practice has become a complex and challenging task. Zirconia materials can be divided into four generations according to their mechanical and optical properties. This review describe the constituents, physical properties, and indications of the four types of available zirconia materials.

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    Pediatric Dentistry
    Consideration and prospect of the timing for permanent restoration of children's first permanent molar with large area defects
    Chen Chen,Tian Yuting,Cheng Li,Wang Guosong,Hu Tao
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  129-134.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021042
    Abstract ( 1193 )   HTML ( 335 )   PDF(pc) (1529KB) ( 1202 )   Save

    The timing and method of permanent restoration of children with severe tooth defects have always been clinical problems. The two main types of permanent restorations commonly used in clinical practice are direct restorations represented by resin filling and indirect restorations such as inlays and crowns. Traditional filling treatments have insufficient strength, poor abrasion resistance, and are easy to fall off, so they have difficulty in meeting the requirements for permanent restoration of severe dental defects. Indirect repairs such as onlays and full crowns can effectively protect the remaining dental tissues. However, given that children are in the mixed dentition period, the timing of their permanent repair treatment needs to comprehensively consider factors such as soft and hard tissue development and occlusal remodeling, which has been controversial. This article summarizes recent mainstream views and considerations of the timing of the first permanent molar permanent restoration in children for clinical reference.

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    Management of the intrusive luxation in young permanent teeth
    Zhou Yijie,Song Guangtai
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  135-140.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021043
    Abstract ( 1538 )   HTML ( 207 )   PDF(pc) (1490KB) ( 1646 )   Save

    The intrusive luxation, one of the worst types of dental trauma, often leads to missing teeth, thereby affecting aesthetics and health. Clinical treatments should be based on the developmental stage of tooth roots and the degree of intrusion. Three treatment options, including re-eruption, orthodontic repositioning, and surgical repositioning, are commonly chosen by children and parents. The main complications including pulp necrosis, root resorption, marginal bone resorption and pulp canal obliteration. Additionally, minimizing the occurrence of complications and adverse effects is the main purpose of the treatment in young permanent tooth trauma. The incidence and the prognosis of complications, including pulp necrosis and root resorption, should be learned and reviewed regularly to perform the appropriate management early in the occurrence of complications. This article reviews the handling strategies and the postoperative complications of intrusive luxation of young permanent teeth.

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    Oral Medicine
    Research advances in the relationship between oral lichen planus and cardiovascular diseases
    Liu Siyu,Li Xin,Xu Xiaoyu,Sun Yinyin,Pan Yingxiao,Wang Sainan,Lu Shulai
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  141-146.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021045
    Abstract ( 539 )   HTML ( 92 )   PDF(pc) (1417KB) ( 138 )   Save

    Oral lichen planus is a common oral mucosal disease. Cardiovascular diseases are a series of diseases affecting the circulatory system and the world,s leading causes of death. The relationship between cardiovascular diseases and lichen planus has been investigated, and a certain correlation between them has been found. This article reviews the relevance of oral lichen planus and cardiovascular diseases in epidemiology, risk factors, inflammatory mediators, and clinical treatment.

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    Research progress on the problems of dental implant treatment in patients with common oral mucosal disease
    Feng Lu,Meng Wenxia
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  147-155.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021020
    Abstract ( 955 )   HTML ( 133 )   PDF(pc) (1469KB) ( 697 )   Save

    Given advancements in prosthodontics as well as increasing demands for a high quality of life, dental implants for patients with dentition defects and suffering from oral mucosal diseases (OMDs) have received increased attention. However, whether implant treatment is feasible and effective for these patients, as well as the related guidelines, is unknown. This paper reviews the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation progress of patients with common OMDs, such as oral lichen planus, autoimmune bullous disease, and Sjögren,s syndrome. The results of this work serve as a reference for future research on stomatology.

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    Original Articles
    Research and accuracy of different methods of digital occlusal splint fabrication for orthognathic surgery
    Wang Lidong,Ma Wen,Fu Shuai,Zhang Changbin,Cui Qingying,Liang Yan,Li Ming
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  156-164.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021024
    Abstract ( 722 )   HTML ( 101 )   PDF(pc) (57098KB) ( 138 )   Save

    Objective To explore different methods of digital occlusal splint fabrication for orthognathic surgery and evaluate their accuracy and clinical application value. Methods Ten patients at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Kunming Medical University with dental and maxillofacial deformities were selected from June 2017 to February 2019. Pre-operative simulation design, virtual osteotomy, and digital occlusal splint design were conducted using single and multiple software, and the accuracy and working time of the resulting digital occlusal splints were evaluated. A traditional occlusal splint was also manufactured by plaster model surgery to evaluate the accuracy and clinical application value of single-software digital occlusal splints. Results The average maximum fusion error of the single-software digital occlusal splint was (0.011 1±0.003 8) mm in the maxilla and (0.010 7±0.003 7) mm in the mandible. The maximum fusion error of the single-software digital occlusal splint was better than that of the multi-software digital occlusal splint (P<0.001), and no significant difference between the maxilla and mandible was observed (P>0.05). There was no case that the occlusal splint can,t be brought in during the operation. The simulation time of single-software operation was less than that of multi-software operation in both single- and double-jaw operations. Conclusion Digital occlusal splints prepared by different methods show different levels of accuracy. Single-software digital occlusal splints offer higher accuracy than multi-software digital occlusal splints. Moreover, the simulation time of single-software operation is less than that of multi-software operation. Thus, single-software digital occlusal splints have great practical application value.

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    Association between periodontal disease and myocardial infarction: a Meta-analysis of cohort studies
    Qin Xiaoru,Liu Mengyuan
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  165-172.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021040
    Abstract ( 590 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF(pc) (3501KB) ( 144 )   Save

    Objective This meta-analysis aimed to systematically assess the association between periodontal disease (PD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in cohort studies. Methods We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, CNKI, WanFang Data, VIP database, and China Biology Medicine disc database from inception to August 31, 2020 for eligible cohort studies on the association between PD and MI. Two independent reviewers performed the data extraction and assessed the study quality by using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A Meta-analysis was performed to pool the risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by using the Review Manager 5.3 software. Then, the source of heterogeneity was determined through the subgroup and the sensitivity analyses. Results Eight cohort studies involving 207 922 participants met the inclusion criteria. This Meta-analysis showed that the pooled RR for the association between PD and MI was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.05-1.40, P=0.008). The sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were robust. The subgroup analyses revealed that gender (female: RR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.17-1.65, P=0.000 2; male: RR=1.05, 95% CI: 0.89-1.24, P=0.580), measurement index, effect value, and quality of literature affected the results. Conclusion Given the high-quality evidence from the included cohort studies, results support the presence of a considerable association between PD and MI especially in women.

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    Meta-analysis of the long-term stability of serious anterior skeletal open-bite malocclusion after orthodontic surgery
    Liu Ling,Gong Renguo,Dong Xiuhua,Liu Rumeng
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  173-179.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021015
    Abstract ( 444 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF(pc) (1491KB) ( 135 )   Save

    Objective The aim of this systematic review was to analyse the long-term stability of a serious anterior skeletal open-bite malocclusion with orthodontic combined surgical treatments. Methods Data were obtained from SCI, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Springer, DOI and other foreign databases, such as Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, VIP database for Chinese technical periodicals, the digital journal of Wan Fang Data and other Chinese databases. The literatures, which consisted of randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials and clinical case-control trials, were selected and evaluated independently by two investigators in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then, Meta-analysis was performed on the literatures that met the inclusion criteria. Results The six references (five foreign articles and one Chinese article) that met the requirements were pre-post case-control studies with a total of 220 patients. Meta-analysis showed that SNA, SNB, ANB, MP-PP, SN-PP, N-Me, ANS-Me, S-G0, OB, OJ, L1-MP/(°), L1-MP/mm, U1-PP/(°) and U1-PP/mm before operation and at least 1 year after operation had no statistical difference, whereas MP-SN had statistical difference.Conclusion Orthodontic and surgical treatment for serious anterior skeletal open-bite malocclusion could keep relative stability, except a little replace of the mandibular.

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    Clinical Technology
    Application of the cone-beam computed tomography-based three-dimensional visualization technology in the surgery of the jaw cystic lesion
    Ding Zhangfan,Guo Zhiyong,Miao Cheng,Li Chunjie,Xuan Ming,Wang Xiaoyi,Zhang Zhuang
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  180-186.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021041
    Abstract ( 534 )   HTML ( 26 )   PDF(pc) (40271KB) ( 304 )   Save

    In the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based three-dimensional visualization technology, the raw data from the CBCT are processed, and the regions of interest are focused, leading to three-dimensional images. Currently, this vehicle is seldom applied on the stomatology. Here, authors present five cases of various jaw cystic lesions receiving diagnoses and treatments aided by CBCT-based three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization technology and discuss its clinical value in such aspect.

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    Correlation between Candida albicans, Actinomyces viscosus, and root caries
    Xiong Kaixin,Zou Ling
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  187-191.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021044
    Abstract ( 606 )   HTML ( 99 )   PDF(pc) (1441KB) ( 191 )   Save

    Root caries is the main form of caries among old people. The pathology of root caries is complicated because the root surface contains high composition of organic collagen and possesses a unique microenvironment. Candida albicans and Actinomyces viscous are normal oral microorganisms while both of these two species play important roles in the occurrence and development of root caries because of their properties, such as acid production, acid tolerance, and organism degradation. We review research on the relationship between Candida albicans, Actinomyces viscous, and root caries to provide novel insights into the clinical control of root caries from the perspective of fungal and bacterial control.

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    Research progress on hydrogels for pulp regeneration
    Cao Chunling,Han Bing,Wang Xiaoyan
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  192-197.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021029
    Abstract ( 525 )   HTML ( 40 )   PDF(pc) (1393KB) ( 270 )   Save

    Hydrogel is a soft, biocompatible polymer network system that can be used as a scaffold in tissue engineering. Using the principles of tissue engineering, dental pulp stem cells cultured in vitro can be implanted into biocompatible, degradable scaffolds, and induced to form pulp-dentin complex and dental pulp-like tissue. Hydrogel scaffolds simulate the extracellular microenvironment and transmit signal molecules, representing a promising material for pulp regeneration. This study reviews the applications of hydrogels with different compositions and properties for pulp regeneration.

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    Effects of brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 gene on the regulation of oral and systemic bone metabolism
    Deng Shiyong,Gong Ping,Tan Zhen
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  198-204.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021032
    Abstract ( 327 )   HTML ( 77 )   PDF(pc) (1369KB) ( 35 )   Save

    The circadian clock gene regulates the circadian rhythm of mammals. As one of its core components, the Bmal1 gene is related to various biological behavioural activities. The role of this gene in bone metabolism has received increasing attention. The Bmal1 gene could be involved in the regulation of the physiological activities of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes related to bone metabolism through the downstream signalling pathways. These phenomena affect bone metabolism-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. The Bmal1 gene simultaneously plays a role in the physiological and pathological processes of the jaw. In this article, the development in the study of the Bmal1 gene regulating the physiology and pathology of bone tissue is reviewed. The results provide possible concepts for the treatment of oral and systemic bone metabolism-related diseases.

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    Research progress on the relationship between circulating tumor cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma
    Gan Jianguo,Gao Pan,Wang Xiaoyi
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  205-212.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021028
    Abstract ( 404 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (1423KB) ( 121 )   Save

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are tumour cells that disseminate from primary lesion into the peripheral circulating blood. Studies have linked CTCs to the early diagnosis, therapy, therapeutic evaluation and prognostic assessment of cancers, particularly breast and lung cancers. However, CTCs are seldom used in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and their value in OSCC lacks clinical evidences. Current evidence has shown that CTCs are a relatively independent prognostic factor and one of the most important reasons of the recurrence and metastasis of OSCC. This paper reviews the current research status of CTCs in OSCC to further elaborate the mechanism of CTCs formation in OSCC and its detection techniques, explore the clinical importance of the biomarkers of OSCC-related CTCs and understand the progression and prognostic relationship between CTCs and OSCC.

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    Oral and maxillofacial manifestations of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
    Liu Shuai,Wang Ningxiang,Lin Liangyuan,Wu Juan
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  213-217.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021027
    Abstract ( 520 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF(pc) (1310KB) ( 109 )   Save

    Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) belong to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare hereditary disorders characterised by varying degrees of connective tissue fragility, which affects the skin, ligaments, blood vessels and internal organs. Principal clinical features include tissue fragility, skin extensibility and joint hypermobility. Published data on the oral and maxillofacial manifestations of EDS are limited, but literature search found that almost all types of EDS have oral and maxillofacial changes, and these changes are often not correctly recognised by clinicians. This article reviews the oral and maxillofacial manifestations of EDS to provide reference for clinicians.

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    Research progress on the correlation between Parkinson's disease and oral diseases
    Chen Jing,Ge Ziyu,Yu Tingting,Zhang Yanzhen
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  218-224.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021033
    Abstract ( 538 )   HTML ( 84 )   PDF(pc) (1363KB) ( 93 )   Save

    Parkinson,s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease that is pre-disposed to the elderly. PD has been extensively studied in recent years. However, the study on oral diseases in relation with PD is still insufficient. Patients with PD are prone to develop various oral diseases, such as dental caries, periodontal diseases, dentition defect, hyper-salivation, xerostomia, bruxism, temporomandibular disorders and impairment of taste. According to the available information and latest study on PD, this review was conducted to discuss the correlation between PD and oral diseases by analysing their epidemiology, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. We believe that the dentist should be an indispensable member of the treatment team for patients with PD to improve their oral health and quality of life.

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    Research progress on masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia
    He Zonghan,Meng Juanhong
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  225-229.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021035
    Abstract ( 936 )   HTML ( 90 )   PDF(pc) (1340KB) ( 397 )   Save

    Masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia (MMTAH) is a disease caused by the chronic progressive hyperplasia of masticatory tendons and aponeurosis and may be characterized by limited mouth opening, square mandible, and other manifestations. It usually starts at adolescence and slowly progresses. Patients have no obvious complaints, so detecting this condition is generally difficult. Since the related report in Japan in 2000, few reports and studies on this disease have been published in other countries. Clinically, surgical treatment is generally used with good effect. This article reviews the progress on the nomenclature, diagnosis, treatment, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of MMTAH in the past two decades.

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    Research progress on the functional surgery of benign submandibular gland tumors
    Shen Jie,He Di,Liu Yanming
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  230-237.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021034
    Abstract ( 939 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF(pc) (5389KB) ( 111 )   Save

    Submandibular gland resection is the most widely accepted treatment for benign submandibular gland tumors. However, postoperative complications such as external scar formation in a highly visible area, increasing incidence of damage to facial and lingual nerves, and xerostomia seriously affect patients' quality of life. As such, the functional surgery of the submandibular gland has been widely used. This review summarized the research progress on functional surgery as a treatment for benign submandibular gland tumors in terms of three aspects to provide a reference for the clinical treatment of benign submandibular gland neoplasms: 1) modified surgical approaches to improve cosmetic results and decrease complications, 2) endoscopic techniques and surgical robot systems in submandibular gland surgery, and 3) opera-ting techniques to preserve the function of important tissues in the submandibular gland region.

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    Research progress on Stafne bone cavity in clinical and imaging features
    Tang Bei,Wang Yang,Wang Hu,You Meng
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  238-242.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021010
    Abstract ( 3721 )   HTML ( 534 )   PDF(pc) (17363KB) ( 4495 )   Save

    The Stafne bone cavity is a rare bone defect that often occurs in the posterior part of the mandible. It is easily misdiagnosed as a jaw cyst or tumor, and patients receive unnecessary surgical treatment. This article reviews the etiology, clinical manifestations, and imaging features of Stafne bone cavity. It summarizes its typical imaging findings to introducing the diversity of its imaging performance and provides guidance for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

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    Research progress on the correlation between impacted canines and palatal morphology
    Liu Yi,Liu Yi
    Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (2):  243-248.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021022
    Abstract ( 525 )   HTML ( 90 )   PDF(pc) (1295KB) ( 139 )   Save

    Impacted canines are among the most common tooth deformities observed in the clinic. Several factors can cause canine displacement inside the alveolar bone to form buccal and palatal impaction. Recent studies have found a close relationship between impacted canines and the morphology of the maxilla, including arch width, arch length, palatal morphology, palatal area, and palatal volume. Research on the morphology of the maxilla is helpful for the early diagnosis and intervention of canine impaction in clinical work and the control of the related complications. In this paper, the morphological changes of the upper arch and palate related to impacted canines are reviewed. This work provides a theoretical reference for the early diagnosis and intervention of impacted canines.

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