Table of Content

    01 May 2015, Volume 42 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatments using early functional training appliances in preadolescent children
    Li Xiaobing
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  249-254.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.001
    Abstract ( 2018 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF(pc) (22472KB) ( 939 )   Save

    Contemporary orthodontic techniques are used to prevent and intercept malocclusions before they start.“Management of occlusal guidance” means to control, guide, and treat the occlusion throughout the occlusal development process from deciduous dentition to mixed dentition, and finally, to permanent dentition. Applying the theory of “muscle win”, early functional training techniques are used to reduce the occurrence and severity of malocclusions by correcting mal-oral functions. The early training appliance is designed as a functional one, which is used to perform the following activities:1)reconstructing the occlusion to control the position and growth of the upper and lower jaws; 2)training the functions of the para-oral muscles and establishing normal nose breathing; 3)guiding the permanent eruption by the tooth slot; 4)re-establishing the normal arch forms. Using the early functional training appliances can train the oral functions, correct bad oral habits, guide the permanent tooth eruption, and intercept the Angle Class Ⅱ/Ⅲ malocclusions. The early functional training appliance has limitations, and proper timing and case selection are the keys to a successful treatment. As a very helpful clinical device, the early functional training appliance has become a part of the techniques in the occlusal guidance management system used by pediatric dentists and orthodontists.

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    Repair on the asymmetry of bilateral cleft lip
    Shi Bing, Tang Shijie, Huang Yongqing, Wang Ru, Chen Renji
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  255-259.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.002
    Abstract ( 761 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (15463KB) ( 357 )   Save

    For asymmetry double side double crack technique is still with some controversy, clinical doctors how to improve the effect of mandibular reconstruction is very concern. Chose 3 cases (figure 1) in current asymmetry of bilateral cleft lip cases as discussed in the content, and invited the following several experts combined with their own clinical experience, respectively for three kinds of bilateral cleft lip reconstructive published his views and solutions.

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    A treatment approach combining fixed and removable partial dentures: a clinical report for dentinogenesis imperfect
    Suo Lai, Chen Zhiqiang, Luo Feng, Li Zhongjie, Wan Qianbing.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  260-262.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.003
    Abstract ( 1015 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (8446KB) ( 734 )   Save

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta(DI) is a hereditary disease that results in defective dentin, especially in permanent dentition. This disease is clinically characterized by yellow-brown teeth, with enamel fracture and excessive abrasion. This disease is a challenge inprosthodontic treatment. This report describes an alternative treatment for DI-affected teeth by combining fixed and removable partial dentures.

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    Bilateral mandibular permanent first molars with fused roots and C-shaped root canal
    Wang Jun, Liu Qingmei, Cheng Lin
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  263-264.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.004
    Abstract ( 1092 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1654KB) ( 665 )   Save

    Mandibular permanent first molars usually have two or three roots accompanied by two to four root canals. The emergence of fused roots and a C-shaped root canal in the mandibular permanent first molar is rare. This article reports a case of bilateral mandibular permanent first molars with fused roots and a C-shaped root canal.

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    Feasibility study on tooth tissue engineering using cross-linked gelatin hydrogel prepared through photo-initiated polymerization
    Li Lei, Qiao Xiangchen, Cui Caiyun, Guo Weihua, Tian Weidong,
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  265-268.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.005
    Abstract ( 1121 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (4514KB) ( 851 )   Save

    Objective The objective of this study is to determine the characteristics, physicochemical property, and bio-compatibility of gelatin methacrylate(GM) hydrogel, with an aim to introduce this as a new scaffold compound for dental pulp regeneration. Methods Gelatin(G) was cross-linked with methylacrylic acid(MA) to produce GM. Its surface appearance was assessed using scanning electron microscope(SEM), and its characteristics were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR). Hydrogel is formed by adding Irgacure2959 into the GM solution. The mixture was subsequently exposedto ultraviolet ray(UV). Rheometer was used to test viscoelastity, which reflects the mechanical property of GM. The effects of GM to the proliferation of human dental pulp cells(hDPCs) were revealed by Trypan Blue and cell counting kit-8(CCK-8). Results GM hydrogel, which was formed from cross-linking of gelatin and methylacrylic acid, not only have been improved in its mechanical property and porosity, but also supported the growth of hDPCs. Conclusion GM hydrogel is a potential scaffold material in dental pulp regeneration research.

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    Three-dimensional finite element analysis of three types of instruments used in curved root canals subjected to torsional load
    Guan Qing, Jin Tao, Gu Yongchun, Yang Ben, Ni Longxing
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  269-272.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.006
    Abstract ( 997 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (2021KB) ( 1273 )   Save

    Objective This study aimed to establish finite element analysis(FEA) models of the K file, H file, and Protaper file, and analyze the factors leading to the breakdown of these instruments when used in curved root canal. Methods Using the software Pro/Engineer 5.0, we generated three-dimensional FEA models of the cutting edges of the stainless steels K file, H file, and Ni-Ti Protaper file. Curved root canals were classified into four groups according to the angle and radius of the curvature:30°/5 mm, 30°/2 mm, 45°/5 mm, and 45°/2 mm. Pro/Mechanica software performed the FEA on the mechanism of the working instrument in a curved root canal. Stress distribution in the cutting edges under clockwise and counterclockwise torsional loads was analyzed. Results Similar stress distribution patterns were observed in K and H file groups regardless of the direction of torsional load, either clockwise or counter clockwise. In the 45°/2 mm group, stress on the K file is concentrated at the tip of the cutting blade. However, in 30°/5 mm and 45°/5 mm groups, stress on the H file is concentrated at the groove between two cutting edges, whereas in 30°/2 mm and 45°/2 mm, maximum stress is located at the tip of the cutting edge, stress positions and no good or bad times to reverse the direction of the association. In F1 Group, maximum stress is located at the cutting edge tip, in addition to groups(i.e., 45°/5 mm and 30°/2 mm) where stress is acting on the groove between two cutting edges. Conclusion The symmetric cross-section design of the K file and Protaper file is beneficial in the distribution of stress, while the non-symme triccross-section design of the H file is prone to create uneven stress distribution. Thus, the latter is easier to break when used in a curved root canal and under torsional load.

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    Clinical and pathological analysis on submucous fibrosis coexisting with oral leukoplakia on 74 patients
    Xiao Xuan, Wu Yingfang, Peng Jieying, Xie Di, Li Min, Song Xuelong
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  273-275.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.007
    Abstract ( 1220 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (6893KB) ( 953 )   Save

    Objective The objective of this study is to observe the clinical and pathological characteristics of oral submucous fibrosis(OSF) coexisting with oral leukoplakia(OLK) to analyze the relationship between the degree of epithelial hyperplasia and the severity of fibrosis. Methods The clinical and pathological data of 74 patients with OSF coexisting with OLK were collected and reviewed. Results Seventy-four patients with OSF coexisting with OLK were mainly young and middle-aged male patients. All had the habit of chewing betel quid, and all exhibited symptoms of OSF and OLK, but higher prevalence is observed in age range of 20 to 49. Pathological features include widened epithelial cell gap, thickened basement membrane, and degenerated collagen fibers. Conclusion No relationship was found between the degree of epithelial hyperplasia and the severity of fibrosis in patients with OSF coexisting with OLK. OSF coexisting with OLK is not simply a combination of two diseases; rather, the combination of which has peculiar features.

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    Preliminary study on the mechanism of antimicrobial activity of peptide P9-0 on pathogens causing oral infection
    Yang Xiaoyu, Yang Tao, Liu Changhong, Huang Chengwei, Li Shiyi
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  276-280.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.008
    Abstract ( 1002 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (2850KB) ( 934 )   Save

    Objective This study aimed to determine the activity of antimicrobial peptide P9-0 on pathogens that cause oral infection, and to explore preliminarily the mechanism of its antibacterial property. Methods Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus) and Fusobacterium nucleatum(F. nucleatum), which are common pathogenic bacteria causing oral infection, were selected as the research organisms. The minimal inhibitory concentrations(MIC) of these bacteria were measured by trace dilution method. Changes in the morphology and integrity of the cell membrane of these bacteria were observed under fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscope. Results The minimal inhibitory concentrations of P9-0 is 50 μg•mL-1 in both S. aureus and F. nucleatum. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that an apparent change in morphology occurred on the bacteria, such as edge coarsening and formation of cell membrane bubble among others. Fluorescence microscopy showed that antimicrobial peptide can lead to loss of integrity of bacterial cell membrane. Conclusion Antimicrobial peptide P9-0 effectively restrains common pathogenic bacteria such as S. aureus and F. nucleatum from causing oral infection, and the mechanism of action is possibly membrane destruction.

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    Morphological diversity of the soft palate in individuals after palatoplasty
    Zong Yi, Wang Ke, Wang Hu
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  281-284.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.009
    Abstract ( 1116 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (3582KB) ( 635 )   Save

    Objective The objective of this study is to investigate, using the lateral cephalometry, the morphological diversity of the soft palate in individuals after palatoplasty including patients with velopharyngeal incompetence(VPI) and those with velopharyngeal competence(VPC). This study also sheds light on the therapy for cleft palate. Methods As ample comprising 113 in dividuals after palatoplasty was observed in this study. The morphology of the soft palate was observed using lateral cephalometry. Differences in the distribution of morphological types between postoperative VPI and VPC patients were analyzed. Moreover, distribution of morphological types on the basis of age group and gender among the postoperative VPI individuals were also observed. Results The morphology of the soft palate was classified into six types. Significant differences in the distribution of morphological types between postoperative VPI and VPC patients were observed. Among the postoperative VPC individuals, the proportion between male and female is significantly different. However, no significant difference was found in the distribution of morphological types among age groups. Conclusion After palatoplasty, the soft palate exhibited various radiographic appearances as revealed by lateral cephalometry. The classification system and the statistical finding spresented in this report are beneficial to the research on velopharyngeal closure in individuals with cleft palate.

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    Culture of human periodontal myofibroblast and time-dependent effect of cell markers
    Meng Yao, Liu Man, Bai Ding
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  285-289.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.010
    Abstract ( 956 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (10707KB) ( 560 )   Save

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the differentiation of human periodontal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts induced by transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1 in vitro and the time-dependent effect of induced myofibroblast(MFB). Methods Human periodontal fibroblasts were cultured with 5 μg•L-1 TGF-β1 for 72 h in vitro to induce to MFB. As an MFB marker, alpha-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) was examined through immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. After induction, MFB was harvested at 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Cell activity was evaluated through flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Results Treatment with 5 μg•L-1 TGF-β1 induced positive α-SMA expression. MFB maintained its phenotype after 120 h, and cell activity was stabilized after 72 h. Conclusion MFB was successfully induced in vitro with 5 μg•L-1 TGF-β1. The cell phenotype was also stabilized within 72 h.

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    The spatial-temporal changes in expression of thyroid transcription factor-2 during development of C57BL/6J mouse palate
    Huang Lei, Ni Xuying, Shi Bing, Zheng Qian, Meng Tian, Wang Yan
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  290-293.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.011
    Abstract ( 850 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1619KB) ( 659 )   Save

    Objective To explore the spatial-temporal regularity in expression of thyroid transcription factor-2(TTF-2) and to understand its role during development of C57BL/6J mouse palate. Methods The palatal shelves from the C57BL/6J mouse embryos were microdissected in aseptic condition on days 12, 13, and 14 of gestation. Each day, six pregnant mice were sacrificed. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry methods were used to detect semi-quantitative and qualitative expression of TTF-2 in palatal shelves. Results In the process of the C57BL/6J mouse palatal shelves growth(embryonic 12 day, E12), elevation(E13) and touch(E14), TTF-2 was expressed in palatal medial edge epithelium(MEE), but no TTF-2 was found in palatal mesenchymal cells by immunohistochemistry location. TTF-2 was not expressed in the MEE of shelf fusing(E15). A significant difference was found, and the highest expression was obtained at E13(P<0.05). This finding was consistent with the RT-PCR and Western blot results on the expression of TTF-2 in the palatal shelves of E12, E13, and E14. Conclusion The expression of TTF-2 during development of C57BL/6J mouse palatal shelves showed spatial-temporal changes correlating with cell differentiation and transformation.

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    A study of colorimetric characteristics of the gold-platinum alloys substructure covered by different all-ceramic crowns before and after veneered application
    Chen Yifan, Liu Hongchun, Meng Yukun, Chao Yonglie, Yang Xiaoyu
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  294-298.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.012
    Abstract ( 872 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1301KB) ( 871 )   Save

    Objective To evaluate the optical data of the different sites of the gold-platinum alloys substructures covered by four different all-ceramic crowns, as well as the color difference between the crowns and target tab by using a digital dental spectrophotometer. Methods Ten gold-platinum alloy substructures were made and were respectively tested on four different groups of all-ceramic crowns(Procera aluminia, Procera zirconia, Lava zirconia, and IPS E.max glass-ceramic lithium disilicate-reinforced monolithic crown). The color data of the cervical, body, incisal sites of the specimens were recorded and analyzed by a spectrophotometer. The L*, a*, b* values were measured again after veneered application. The color difference between the substructures covered by all-ceramic crowns and target A2 dentine shade tab was evaluated. Results The L* values of the substructures can be increased by all four groups of all-ceramic copings and were higher than that of the A2 tab, but a* values were decreased and lower than A2 tab. The b* values showed inconsistent tendency of change. A statistical difference was found among four groups of copings. After veneered application, the L* values of all the copings declined and were lower than that of the control group. The values of a* and b* increased significantly, but the a* of the specimens was lower than that of the control. When compared with A2 dentine shade tab, the ΔΕ of the crowns was small, but the color difference was still clinically perceptible by human eyes. Conclusion Four ceramic crowns, made up of just coping and dentine porcelain, effectively promoted the color of the alloy www.gjkqyxzz.cn substructures, but the lightness and hue were lower than the target A2. The color difference between the specimens and target was clinically acceptable, but noticeable. Thus, veneering porcelain with lower color saturation and high translucency is needed.

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    Influence of psychological health education on the effect of maxillofacial prosthesis
    Zhang Xingle, Li Le, Wang Peng, Huo Feng, Xu Yingying
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  299-301.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.013
    Abstract ( 901 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1075KB) ( 764 )   Save

    Objective To evaluate the influence of psychological health education on the effect of maxillofacial prosthesis. Methods A total of 46 patients who received maxillofacial prosthesis were randomly divided into two groups, namely, the experimental group(n=23) and the control group(n=23). Only patients in experimental group received psychological health education. Satisfaction on maxillofacial prosthesis among the patients in the two groups was compared on the 1st and 3rd months after prosthesis. Results Compared with control group, the satisfaction of experimental group was higher on the 1st and 3rd months after prosthesis, especially satisfaction with mastication, speaking, stability, and deglutition(P<0.05). Conclusion Psychological health education improves the effect of maxillofacial prosthesis on patients with maxillofacial defect.

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    Relationship between colorimetry and transparency of zirconia ceramic with clinical all-ceramic crown repair
    Wang Wanwei, Chen Yuanhua, Yu Qing
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  302-305.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.014
    Abstract ( 1345 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1182KB) ( 1928 )   Save

    Objective To compare and study the colorimetry and transparency of Vita In-Ceram YZ and Sirona InCorisZI to divect clinical repair. Methods Six groups of Vita In-Ceram YZ samples were made. Five groups of samples were immersed in the Vita In-Ceram YZ staining fluid(LL1-LL5), and the other group was the control. Five groups of Sirona InCorisZI samples were made. After sintering, the final thickness of samples was 0.5 mm. The chromatic value(L*, a*, b*) and integral visible light transmittance ratio(τ) of the 11 groups’ samples were measured. Results With increasing label number, the values of L* and τ decreased both in Vita and Sirona zirconia ceramic. Among Vita groups, there were significant differences(τ) between Vita0 and Vita3, Vita4, and Vita5. Significant differences were also found between Vita1 and Vita3, Vita4, and Vita5. Among sirona groups, significant differences(τ) were found between Sirona4.5 and Sirona0.5, Sirona1, and Sirona2. Between the same and similar label numbers of Vita and Sirona zirconia ceramic, no significant difference was found in terms of the τ value. Moreover, the ΔE was more than 2 NBS between the two groups, except for the Sirona4.5 and Vita4 groups. Conclusion In Vita groups or Sirona groups, the τ value may differ according to the different label numbers. Between the same or similar label numbers of the two groups, no difference was found in terms of the τ value. However, a difference in ΔE was found. High transparency zirconia materials that can better reproduce the color of teeth should be chosen for applications.

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    Research on clinical application of inhibitory effects of Clinpro™ White Varnish tooth mineralization during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance
    Zhu Yuting, Liu Jiangfeng, Li Xiaoxing, Huang Jiangyong, Li Yanli
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  306-309.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.015
    Abstract ( 1300 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (1156KB) ( 853 )   Save

    Objective We aimed to determine the value of preventing enamel decalcification using Clinpro™ White Varnish during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance in clinical application. Methods A total of 120 orthodontic patients treated with fixed appliance were selected and randomly divided into three groups. Clinpro™ White Varnish was used on 40 cases. Forty cases were treated with fluoridation protector(double-fluorinated silane solution containing 0.1% fluorion), and 40 cases did not receive any special treatment. The enamel decalcification index of the labial(buccal) surface of all teeth was calculated before treatment and at 24 months after treatment. Results No significant difference was found among the enamel decalcification index of the three groups before treatment(P>0.05). The enamel decalcification index of the two groups treated with topical fluoridation was significantly lower than that of the control groups after 24 months(P<0.05), and the enamel decalcification index between the two groups with topical fluoridation did not differ significantly(P>0.05). Conclusion Clinpro™ White Varnish is a simple and convenient treatment for preventing dental caries in patients. It has a strong effect in preventing enamel decalcification during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance. Therefore, it is suitable for orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance in clinical settings.

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    Gene expression analysis of oral squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent tissues
    Zhou Ying, Jiang Yihua
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  310-313.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.016
    Abstract ( 1317 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF(pc) (1153KB) ( 1718 )   Save

    Objective This study aims to provide evidence for the discovery of double-sided cancer-inhibitory targets by analyzing the behavior of gene differential expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC)’s cancer and adjacent tissues. The tissues used in the study are deposited at the National Center for Biotechnology Information(NCBI)-gene expression omnibus(GEO). Methods Expression data of OSCC cancer and adjacent tissues, as well as normal oral tissues, were downloaded from the NCBI-GEO database. After identifying differentially expressed genes, functional clustering and pathway analysis were performed. Results Most of the genes differentially expressed in cancer and adjacent tissues were similar in terms of normal oral tissues; most of these tissues have the same differential expression direction. The behavior of gene differential expression was related to its function. However, the WIF1 sample, which theoretically suppresses cell cycle, was actually up-regulated in cancer adjacent tissue. Conclusion The relationship between the genes’ function and their differential expression directions could provide evidence for double-sided target searching.

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    Canine model application in periodontal disease studies
    Hui Hui, Wang Ge
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  314-317.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.017
    Abstract ( 1076 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1176KB) ( 1055 )   Save

    Periodontal disease is a common and infectious non-nasal disease that directly affects oral health. Periodontal disease has been confirmed to be the vital reason that causes adults to lose teeth. Discussing its pathogenesis and studying the pathology characteristics, curative effect, and clinical observation is not enough because of the complexity of the clinical manifestations of periodontal disease. Therefore, animal models have been widely applied. In recent years, canine models are widely used in studies on periodontal disease. This review will illustrate the status of these studies.

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    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and oral lichen planus
    Wang Xiaxia, Sun Hongying
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  318-322.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.018
    Abstract ( 1090 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1212KB) ( 668 )   Save

    Hypoxia-inducible factor(HIF)-1 is an important transcription factor in cellular adaptation to hypoxic conditions is involved in regulating immune cell differentiation, promoting the adhesion and influence the formation of cell metabolism, inducing new blood vessels, and regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis, among others. In recent years, studies have shown that HIF-1α may play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. This article reviewed the research progress onHIF-1inthe following aspects: the structure, function, and regulation of HIF-1, immune inflammatory response in the expression of HIF-1α, and the role of HIF-1α in the occurrence and development of oral lichen planus.

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    Structure, demethylation activity, and biological function of 1011 translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase-1
    Rao Lijia, Li Qimeng, Xu Qiong
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  323-327.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.019
    Abstract ( 1439 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1166KB) ( 1284 )   Save

    Ten-eleven translocation methyl cytosine dioxygenase(TET)-1, one of the important protein in DNA demethylation pathway, is found in acute myeloid leukemia and is associated with chromosomal translocation t(10;11) (q22;q23) in patients with leukemia. The C-terminal dioxygenase district is the main catalytic functional domain of TET-1, can oxidized five methylcytosine(5-mC) into 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine. TET-1 plays a role in embryogenesis, somatic cell reprogramming, tumorigenesis, development of nerve cells, and regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation in adult cells by participating in demethylation and regulation of DNA gene expression. The hydroxy methylation of 5-mC in the TET-1 protein has elucidated the diversity and complexity of DNA gene expression. This mechanism has also been used in stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and tumorigenesis for functional studies of many physiological phenomena to provide novel interpretation for the occurrence and development of diseases.

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    Effective immunogen and injection route of periodontitis vaccine related to Porphyromonas gingivalis and adjuvants
    Wang Kun, Shen Daonan, Wu Yafei, Zhao Lei
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  328-333.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.020
    Abstract ( 1647 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (1140KB) ( 896 )   Save

    Multiple antigens on the surface of Porphyromonas gingivalis(P.gingivalis) can induce the body to confer protective immunity and prevent bacterial colonization and infection. Therefore, selection of a suitable and effective immunogen of P.gingivalis is important to prevent periodontitis. Multiple antigens of P.gingivalis include fimbria, gingipain, hemagglutinin, outer membrane protein, capsule, and heat shock protein. These antigens can be effective immunogens of a vaccine against periodontitis. Gland immune, mucosal immune, subcutaneous injection, and muscle injection are common methods for administering the vaccine. Mucosal immune is generally accepted as the main administration method of the periodontitis vaccine. The use of adjuvants in the periodontitis vaccine can also stimulate immune responses and enhance antigen immunogenicity. Future research on vaccines against periodontitis should combine the vaccine with various antigens of P.gingivalis. Through this method, scholars can determine the common antigens of each serotype, associate the effective immunogens of other periodontal pathogens, and select the most effective immune pathway and antigen-presenting adjuvants.

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    Effect of phosphatase and tensin homolog gene deleted on chromosome 10 in oral squamous cell carcinoma
    Zeng Suyun, Wang Jianguang
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  334-338.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.021
    Abstract ( 1159 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1130KB) ( 759 )   Save

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog gene deleted on chromosome 10(PTEN) plays an essential role not only in cell cycle regulation, limiting cell growth, and proliferation, but also in cell migration regulation, adhesion, and maintenance of the stability of the immune system through the signal transduction pathway. The PTEN gene may not undergo mutation and deletion during the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) but may be specifically related to the reduction of the PTEN mRNA expression level. The PTEN protein exhibits decreased expression in different histological types of specimens, ranging from healthy oral mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis(OSF) to OSCC. This event is important in the pathogenesis and malignant transformation mechanism of OSF. The expression of the PTEN protein is related to the histological and biological behavior of OSCC and can be used as a prognostic indicator of OSCC. The low expression of the PTEN protein caused by different factors may cause difficulty in performing its role on coordination of cell cycle, control of programmed cell death and cell adhesion, inhibition of metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells.

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    Relationship among β-defensin-3, periodontitis, and diabetes mellitus
    Jiang Hui, Huang Ping
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  339-343.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.022
    Abstract ( 1082 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (1215KB) ( 1023 )   Save

    The expression of β-defensin-3 is related to periodontitis and diabetes mellitus, and the latter two are associated with each other. Patients with periodontitis exhibit reduced expression of β-defensin-3 in gingival crevicular fluid. Moreover, the expression level of β-defensin-3 is negatively correlated with the severity of periodontal inflammation and the number of total periodontopathogens. Non-periodontopathic bacteria, such as Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Veillonella atypica, can up-regulate the expression of β-defensin-3. Orange complex bacteria, including Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium nucleatum, can efficiently induce production of β-defensin-3, whereas red complex bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, exhibit suppressive effects. The increased expression of β-defensin-3 in periodontally healthy tissues is important to maintain periodontal homeostasis because of its functions, such as antimicrobial activity, immunoregulation, and promotion of cell proliferation and growth. In diabetic wounds, β-defensin-3 is inadequately expressed because of the high-glucose environment that impairs the body’s immune responses. Further studies must elucidate the possible adverse reaction and biological function of β-defensin-3, as well as its mechanism in infectious diseases.

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    The occurrence and development of complement and periodontitis and its treatment
    Li Na, Gao Aichao, Wang Lili, Yu Haiyan, Yu Weixian,
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  344-347.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.023
    Abstract ( 959 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF(pc) (1156KB) ( 857 )   Save

    The complement system mediates the body’s defense reactions to protect the host against periodontal chronic inflammatory diseases. This system assists pathogens to exacerbate pathological and destructive inflammation by directly affecting immune cells or via crosstalk and by regulating other host signaling pathways. The complement system induces secretion of interleukin, tumor necrosis factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor during immune inflammation. Secretion is stimulated by activating leukocytes, regulating helper T cells and macrophages, and promoting cell immune and T cell-dependent antibody secretion, thus enhancing the regulation of immune effect and improving the body’s immunity. Furthermore, the complement system produces inflammation that exacerbates tissue damage and triggers periodontitis. The antagonists of the complement receptor can significantly clean pathogens and prevent periodontitis by interfering the signaling crosstalk between the complement receptor and Toll-like receptors. Therefore, elucidating the mechanism of the complement system in periodontitis can provide novel targets for periodontitis therapeutics.

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    Regulatory role of sympathetic nervous system–adrenergic receptor on bone remodeling
    Zhou Zheng, Zhao Changming, Jiao Kai, Wang Meiqing
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  348-351.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.024
    Abstract ( 1226 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF(pc) (1153KB) ( 1418 )   Save

    The sympathetic nervous system(SNS) of reconstructed bone tissues and bone cell innervation is the basis in regulating bone metabolism in histological studies. The binding of adrenergic receptor and its corresponding ligands can activate multiple signal transduction pathways, complete the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast cells, and regulate bone metabolism. For osteoblasts, SNS can be activated by α1 receptors to promote bone formation but can also be activated by β2 receptor to inhibit bone formation. For osteoclasts, SNS can directly affect osteoclast precursor cells and promote their differentiation. SNS can also be adjusted with a pro-osteoclastic factor nuclear factor kappa B receptor to activate secretion of bone cells, and thus, indirectly promote the activity of osteoclasts. In the physiology and pathology of bone remodeling, SNS regulates osteoclast activity in the alveolar bones under mechanical stimulation. In addition to the occurrence and development of SNS and osteoporosis, blocking SNS signals to prevent osteoporosis with pathological bone loss has important clinical implications to characterize the disease.

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    Effects of oral restorative materials on biofilms
    Wang Haohao, Cheng Lei
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  352-356.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.025
    Abstract ( 960 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1160KB) ( 1335 )   Save

    In the development of stomatology, various dental restorative materials are applied in clinical treatments. Restorative materials with different interface structures and chemical properties affect bioadhesion and biofilm development. In a saliva environment, the intrinsic properties of these materials are deteriorated by the acquired pellicles to some extent; however, some of these properties can still occur through long-range force, thus affecting the development of biofilms. These materials can affect bioadhesion through different mechanical factors in the initial adhesion stage. Restorative materials can also release chemicals that affect the metabolism of biofilms. Composite resins, glass ionomer cements, ceramic materials, and metallic materials are common dental restorative materials. Investigation on the effect of these materials on biofilms can provide theoretical support for modification of dental materials.

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    Pathogenicity, detection, and elimination of Enterococcus faecalis in post-treatment endodontic disease
    Zhang Ruirui, Sun Keqin
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  357-360.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.026
    Abstract ( 1321 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (1187KB) ( 982 )   Save

    Enterococcus faecalis(E.faecalis) is the most commonly detected bacteria in post-treatment endodontic disease, with a detection rate that ranges from 24% to 77% in reinfected root canal. The pathogenicity of E.faecalis is highly correlated with the formation of biofilms and presents a complex relationship to drug resistance. This association is the key factor in chronic infections in the root canal. Primary methods, including bacterial culture and PCR, are used to detect E.faecalis. PCR is more sensitive to E.faecalis in the infected root canals than bacterial culture. Methods on removal of E.faecalis in post-treatment endodontic disease vary and provide different results, particularly inhibition rate. The use of 2% chlorhexidine gel results in 100% inhibition of bacterial growth compared with using 10% chlorpromazine(88.8%), 4% lignocaine gel(76.4%), and 5% amiloride hydrochloride(71.4%). Moreover, mixture-tetracycline-isomer-acid-detergent, QMiX, and NaClO are more effective than 2% chlorhexidine. In addition, erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser can eliminate E.faecalis biofilm. This article reviewed different correlation studies regarding pathogenicity, detection, and elimination of E.faecalis in post-treatment endodontic disease.

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    Multiple effect of polyamines on biofilm
    Ou Meizhen, Ling Junqi
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  361-363.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.027
    Abstract ( 841 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1250KB) ( 1107 )   Save

    Many factors are involved in biofilm formation and disassembly. It’s a heat and new area of research about factors which can trigger biofilm disassembly and inhibit biofilm formation. Polyamines are populate in bacteria, recent research demonstrate that polyamines act on different aspects of biofilm formation and disassembly, both extracellularly and intracellularly. We provide here a brief overview of the role of polyamines in biofilm formation and disassembly.

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    Research progress on the influencing factors of the treatment efficiency of invisible orthodontics
    Pan Tingting, Fang Bing
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  364-366.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.028
    Abstract ( 982 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1074KB) ( 1088 )   Save

    Since the introduction of the Invisalign system in 1999, invisible orthodontics has been commonly used in the clinic. However, several years of clinical practice has revealed the limitations of invisible orthodontics. The efficiency of invisible orthodontics has been controversial because of its difference from the conventional fixed appliance technology. This paper reviews the factors that influence the treatment efficiency of invisible orthodontics and other related research progress.

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    Relationship between extraction treatment and eruption of mandibular third molar
    Hu Yidie, Zhou Li, Wang Yanmin
    Inter J Stomatol. 2015, 42 (3):  367-370.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2015.03.029
    Abstract ( 1040 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1154KB) ( 844 )   Save

    The mandibular third molar eruption is commonly divided into three phases: pre-eruptive phase, the process of developing at the bottom of mandibular ramus as well as moving forward; pre-functional eruptive phase, dental germ moving along the axis of tooth with mesial movement; functional eruptive phase, gingival emergence to the occlusal plane. The factors affecting eruption space were modeling resorption of the mandibular ramus, growth amount of the mandibular arch and alveolar bone, sagittal growth amount of mandibular body, etc.. And eruption angulation was another variable associated with retromolar space, the development of root, sagittal skeletal classification, etc.. As for the methods to evaluate eruption space and angulation of third molar, cephalometric radiograph, panoramic radiograph and cone beam CT were included. However, it is not clear whether premolar extraction orthodontic treatment can have effects on the mandibular third molar eruption. Other factors may influence the angulation and position of the mandibular third molar and that it is not possible to predict exactly.

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