01 May 2020, Volume 47 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
Expert Forum
The definition of skeletal stem cell in bone development
Yu Shi
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  249-256.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020055
Abstract ( 110 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF(pc) (8007KB) ( 100 )   Save

Growing evidence supports the idea that skeletal stem cells play important roles in bone development. Over the recent years, the identification of skeletal stem cells has evolved from cells simply defined by in vitro behaviors to cells identified by a combination of ex vivo serial transplantation assays and in vitro lineage-tracing experiments. These approaches have shown better identification of the characteristics of skeletal stem cells residing in multiple tissues, including the perichondrium of the fetal bone, the resting zone of the postnatal growth plate and the adult bone marrow space. Multiple groups of skeletal stem cells seem to collaborate tightly and achieve critical biological functions of mineralized tissue, including not only bone development and growth, but also maintenance and repair. Although recently more studies have been focusing on this topic and collecting numbers of important findings, we are still beginning to understand the diversity and the nature of skeletal stem cells, and how they actually behave in vivo. Accumulating works need to be done to investigate the feature and systemic regulation of skeletal stem cells.

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Mesenchymal Stem Cell
Research progress on circular RNA in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells
Yeqing Yang,Ming Chen,Buling Wu
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  257-262.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020045
Abstract ( 108 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF(pc) (6017KB) ( 68 )   Save

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation proficiency. The increasing number of studies on MSCs has allowed people to further understand their biological characteristics, differentiation ability and clinical application. Circular RNA (circRNA) is a kind of universal and diverse endogenous non-coding RNA, which is widely found in eukaryotic cells. The circular structure is covalently closed, continuous and stable. circRNA has many functions, such as microRNA sponges and regulators of alternative splicing and gene expression. Studies have shown that circRNA is a vital regulated target that plays an important role in the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs to maintain the characteristics of differentiation. This article reviews the current research on the effects of circRNA on the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.

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Research progress on N6-methyladenosine for regulating the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
Junqi Liu,Yiyin Chen,Wenbin Yang
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  263-269.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020033
Abstract ( 80 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF(pc) (6897KB) ( 164 )   Save

RNA N6-methylation of adenosine is the most prevalent epigenetic modification of messenger and noncoding RNAs in eukaryotes and plays an important role in various biological processes. Recent studies demonstrated that RNA N6-methyladenosine has profound effect on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, especially in osteogenic differentiation. In this paper, we review related studies to provide new strategies for follow-up basic research and clinical applications.

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Comparative review of growth factors inducing 3D in vitro cartilage formation of mesenchymal stem cells
Mingjing Zhu,Qingbin Zhang
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  270-277.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020023
Abstract ( 163 )   HTML ( 41 )   PDF(pc) (7813KB) ( 105 )   Save

The ability of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to undergo chondrogenic differentiation has been studied extensively. The chondrogenic potential of these stem cells differs from one another. In general, the most common growth factors for chondrogenic induction originate from the transforming growth factor (TGF) -β superfamily. A thorough review of literature indicates that MSCs exhibit the highest chondrogenic potential in 3D culture in the medium containing dexamethasone and TGF-β3. Several reports indicated that the addition of TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3; bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP-7 and BMP-9; and several types of fibroblast growth factor-2. Glucocorticoids and insulin-like growth factor-1 promote MSCs for chondrogenic differentiation, but these results are still not consistently supported. However, to date, current formulations do not always induce the stable differentiation of MSC cartilages. In this paper, the effects of each growth factor alone and in combination on the 3D in vitro cartilage differentiation of MSCs were reviewed.

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Original Articles
Effects of inorganic bovine bone treated with low temperature argon-oxygen plasma on the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells
Kai Ma,Hao Li,Hongmei Zhao,Yongliang Wang,Jie Liu,Na Bai
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  278-285.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020061
Abstract ( 59 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (17290KB) ( 32 )   Save

Objective To study the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of mouse embryonic osteoblast MC3T3-E1 on inorganic bovine bone treated with low temperature argon-oxygen plasma. Methods After the surface activation of inorganic bovine bone by low temperature argon-oxygen plasma, the surface morphology of inorganic bovine bone before and after treatment was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface elemental composition was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MC3T3-E1 cells were inoculated on the surface of inorganic bovine bone treated with low temperature argon-oxygen plasma, and the cell adhesion morphology was observed by SEM. The proliferation of cells on days 1, 3, and 5 was detected using the CCK-8 method, and the differentiation of cells on days 7 and 14 was detected using the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) method. The control group comprised the inorganic bovine bone without treatment. Results No significant change was observed in the surface morphology of the inorganic bovine bone of the control and the argon-oxygen groups. Relative to the composition of the material elements in the control group, the argon-oxygen group had decreased surface C element and increased O, Ca, and P elements. Under SEM, the cell adhesion of the argon-oxygen group was more complete, and the cell extended pseudopodia. The cell proliferation test results showed that the number of cell proliferation in the argon-oxygen group was significantly higher than that in the control group at days 1, 3, and 5. The cell differentiation results showed that the ALP activity in the argon-oxygen group was higher than that in control group at day 14. Conclusion The inorganic bovine bone treated with low temperature argon-oxygen plasma can promote the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of mouse embryonic osteoblast cells.

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Comparison of polarization characteristics of human monocyte cell- and peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived macrophages
Ye Liu,Rundan Hong,Zhiguo Wang,Hanyun Liu,Chenda Meng,Ru Wang,Quanchen Xu
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  286-292.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020062
Abstract ( 87 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (15616KB) ( 33 )   Save

Objective Obtained from successfully established polarization models, the polarization characteristics of macrophages (Mφ) from different sources were compared to provide an experimental basis for biological treatments. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated through density gradient centrifugation and magnetic cell sorting and were cultured in vitro. PBMC Mφ was induced by human recombinant macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The human monocyte cell line THP-1 was differentiated into THP-1 Mφ under the induction of 100 nmol·L-1 phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Morphology, polarization marker expression (CD86 and CD206), and cytokine secretion levels of the two groups were compared under the condition of M1 or M2 polarization factors. M1 polarization factors was 50 ng·mL-1 lipopolysaccharides and 20 ng·mL-1 interferon-γ, and M2 polarization factors was 20 ng·mL-1 interleukin-4. Results After M1 polarization, the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were markedly upregulated, the expression of CD86 was enhanced, and the secretions of IL-1β and TNF-α in THP-1 Mφ were higher than those in PBMC Mφ. After M2 polarization, the mRNA levels of mannose receptor C-type 1 and interleukin-10 increased, and the expression of CD206 was upregulated in PBMC Mφ. However, no difference was observed in THP Mφ. Conclusion THP-1 is appropriate for M1 polarization, and PBMC is appropriate for M2 polarization.

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Case Reports
Inferior alveolar nerve injury due to apical overfilling: two cases reports
Bei Tang,Wenjun Zhao,Hu Wang,Guangning Zheng,Meng You
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  293-296.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020063
Abstract ( 115 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF(pc) (5306KB) ( 199 )   Save

Invasive oral cavity treatment is associated with the risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury. Root canal therapy as the root cause of this injury is rare but may lead to severe neurologic complications. This report presents two patients who complained of neurologic complication after overextension of canal filling material during endodontic treatment. Clinical manifestations, X-ray imaging, and prevention and treatment measures were discussed with the aid of available literature to provide references for avoiding such risks in clinic.

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Computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing-constructed polyetheretherketone removable partial dentures: a clinical report
Yuqing Lu,Jie Min,Xin Chen,Chunxu Liu,Bo Dong,Li Yue,Haiyang Yu
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  297-303.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020041
Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (24559KB) ( 55 )   Save

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a novel polymer compound with desirable mechanical properties and biosafety. It has been gradually used in the fields of prosthodontics, implantation, and orthodontics in recent years. Although the clinical application of PEEK in the frameworks of removable partial dentures has been reported, no related clinical studies on removable partial dentures fabricated with PEEK have been reported. In this case, a digital workflow was used to fabricate removable partial dentures with frameworks, artificial teeth, and bases using PEEK as the denture material. Immediate restoration was conducted on an 83-year-old patient with maxillary and mandibular dentition defects. Satisfactory results were observed at 3-6 months follow-up after treatments.

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Reviews
Advances in research on the relationship of neutrophil extracellular traps to periodontitis
Xiaoyu Wang,Zhaorong Zhu,Yafei Wu,Lei Zhao
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  304-310.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020019
Abstract ( 121 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF(pc) (6713KB) ( 109 )   Save

Neutrophil is a member of the body’s defence system and plays an important role in immune responses. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) is a newly discovered form of functioning neutrophil that can trap and kill pathogens and may cause direct or indirect damage to the body. NETs not only appear in periodontal tissues but are also closely related to periodontal pathogens. This article will review related research on NETs and periodontitis.

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Supernumerary teeth and its theranostics
Yongzhi Wu,Ke Yao,Siyu Chen,Nengwen Huang,Liao Wang
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  311-317.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020058
Abstract ( 150 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF(pc) (6416KB) ( 263 )   Save

Supernumerary teeth, also termed as extra teeth, are excessive teeth and a common hypoplasia of teeth with a predisposition for the anterior maxilla. Extra teeth are frequently found in male and can be classified into conical, tuberculate, supplemental, and odontoma according to their morphology. Dental lamina hyperactivity theory is widely accepted, but the etiology of supernumerary teeth remains hypothetical. Supernumerary teeth can cause a series of complications and may be associated with many developmental syndromes. Patients often consult doctor after they get complications. Thus, early diagnosis and effective treatment are important. This article reviews the etiology, clinical feature, complications, and theranostics of supernumerary teeth.

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Application of periodontal plastic surgery in the preservation and reconstruction of gingival papilla
Jiamei Liu,Yanmin Wu
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  318-327.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020043
Abstract ( 137 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (12707KB) ( 106 )   Save

Papilla loss due to periodontal tissue defects could lead to aesthetic problems, food impaction, gingivitis, and pronunciation problems. Periodontal surgery and non-surgical treatment are the major solutions to preserve or reconstruct the gingival papilla. Relative periodontal surgery includes special surgical incisions to reduce papilla loss and application of soft tissue grafts or substitutes for papilla reconstruction. Sufficient blood supply is the key to successful periodontal mucogingival surgery. This article aims to review the specific role of periodontal surgery in the preservation and reconstruc-tion of gingival papilla.

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Research progress on mandibular advancement therapy for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome
Yuan Zhao,Ting Yang,Wentao Peng,Chunyan Liu
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  328-335.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020036
Abstract ( 74 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (7393KB) ( 42 )   Save

Obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is a disease characterized by recurrent apnoea or hypopnoea during sleep and has a high incidence and a potentially lethal risk. In recent years, the disease has received increasing attention. Among many treatment methods, mandibular advancement device (MAD) is a non-surgical and effective method used to treat mild and moderate OSAHS. The unique advantages of MAD include non-invasiveness, easy removal and receptiveness for patients. This article will summarise the classification, mechanism of action, difference from continuous positive airway pressure and effects of MAD on patients.

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Pulp and periodontal ligament healing of tooth avulsion replantation: from biological basis to guidelines
Xindi Ma,Lei Chen
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  336-344.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020042
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Tooth avulsion is a serious traumatic tooth injuries and is characterized by the complete displacement of the tooth from its alveolar socket due to trauma. The avulsed tooth has severe damaged pulp and periodontal tissue, and the treatment plan is immediate replantation to its original position with possibility of periodontal ligament regeneration and pulp revascularization. However, the prognosis of tooth avulsion is influenced by many clinical factors. In some cases, the complications are unavoidable even with standardized treatments for avulsed tooth according to the recommended guidelines of the International Association of Dental Traumatology (2012) and American Association of Endodontics (2013). Basing on the advancement in biological research and some clinical cases, this review attempts to help clinical doctors understand and apply the guidelines into practice.

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Effects of cleft characteristics and orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate
Yiyin Chen,Junqi Liu,Chenghao Li
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  345-350.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020064
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Alveolar cleft is a bone defect located in the maxillary dental arch and usually occurs between the lateral incisors and canine. Owing to congenital cleft, early surgical scar contracture, and lip muscle oppression, most patients experience severe maxillary transverse developmental disorders. As a critical step in the cleft lip and palate team approach, alveolar bone grafting effectively repairs the maxillary fissure and corrects maxillary transverse developmental disorders. Many studies and clinical practices have indicated that the timing of orthodontic treatment and the characteristics of alveolar cleft are closely related to the success rate and prognosis of this technique. In this paper, the effects of cleft characteristics and timing of orthodontic treatment on the success rate and prognosis of alveolar bone grafting were reviewed to provide a basis for the selection of clinical treatment programs and the design of scientific research for patients with cleft lip and palate.

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Application of erbium laser in pediatric dentistry
Lintong Yu,Guangtai Song
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  351-355.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020049
Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF(pc) (4909KB) ( 70 )   Save

With the increasing attention paid to children’s oral diseases, new laser technologies have been gradually applied to the treatment of such diseases. Among existing technologies, the erbium laser is the most comprehensive one for treatment. This technology can be applied to the treatment of oral soft tissue diseases and dental hard tissue diseases simultaneously. Children’s oral diseases are wide ranging and involve special treatment methods. The application of the erbium laser coincides with the scope of children’s oral disease treatment as it conforms to the principle of minimal invasiveness and comfortable treatment. In this study, the principle and application of the erbium laser to the treatment of children’s oral hard tissue diseases, soft tissue diseases, and endodontics are reviewed. Hence, this study can provide a reference for the clinical treatment of children’s oral diseases.

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Research process on parageusia etiology and treatment
Guoli Tian,Lu Jiang,Qianming Chen,Xin Zeng
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  356-361.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020065
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Parageusia is a disease characterized by abnormal taste changes and implicated in the loss of appetite, unintended weight loss, and malnutrition. Parageusia can even affect the physical and mental health and reduce the quality of life of the patient. Currently, the etiology and pathogenesis of parageusia are still ambiguous. The possible pathogenic factors are complicated. To the best of our knowledge, no recognized effective examination method and treatment is available. Dentists are often the first clinicians to be visited by patients with taste changes. This paper summarizes the definition, classification, etiology, pathogenesis, therapy, and prognosis of parageusia and the common parageusia associated with different systemic diseases to provide management options for dental clinicians.

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The strategy to reduce the risk of novel coronavirus pneumonia transmission via aerosol in dental practice
Jianru Yi,Mengqi Luo,Yijia Yin,Zhiqing Liu,Qian Liu,Yongle Shi,Zheng Yang,Fan Liu,Xianglong Han
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  362-365.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020060
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The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has spread nation wide since its outbreak in December 2019. The long exposure to high concentration of aerosols in enclosed environment could increase the risk of COVID-19 infection. The aerosol generated by dental procedures is a risk factor of cross-infection. Managing the aerosol in dental office according to its properties would be beneficial for the prevention and control of cross-infection. Based on the currently available literatures, we summarized the methods to decrease the risks of aerosol transmission. This study could provide information and recommendations for the management of aerosols in dental practice.

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Occupational exposure risk factors and protection for dental health care workers from contagion
Jian Pan,Haotian Cao,Jiyuan Liu,Liao Wang,Xian Liu,Xuejuan Liao
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (3):  366-372.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020057
Abstract ( 73 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF(pc) (6783KB) ( 92 )   Save

Dentists are exposed to various pathogens, particularly to infectious disease pathogens that seriously threaten their health. The basic transmission ways of pathogenic microorganisms in dental operation include blood-borne, splatter, contact, and aerosol transmissions. Microbial colonies, such as prions, viruses, fungi, and bacteria, are transmitted through these pathways. With the outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China since December 2019, the risk of infection caused by aerosols generated during dental operations has received increasing attention. This review summarizes current studies on the spread of infectious diseases in dental operations and the related risk factors to encourage oral physicians to prioritize protection and avoid occupational exposure.

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