Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and systemic inflammatory levels in patients with CKD and periodontal disease so as to provide a theoretical reference for co-management. Methods Eligible studies as of July 2020 were searched systematically in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, S-cience Direct, Scopus, Web of Scienc, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP. Two independent reviewers screened the literature, evaluated the quality of the studies, extracted the data, and evaluated the risk of bias of the included stu-dies in duplicate. Meta-analysis was then conducted with RevMan 5.3. Results Six randomized controlled trials involving 432 participants were included. Meta-analysis showed that compared with the control group, the patients who received non-surgical periodontal treatment had lower 24-hour urinary protein quantity [MD=-0.32, 95% CI (-0.50, -0.14), P=0.000 4], serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients under 45 years old [MD=-1.25, 95% CI (-1.38, -1.12), P<0.000 01], serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) after 3 and 6 months of treatment [MD=-0.82, 95% CI (-1.64, 0.00), P=0.05; MD=-1.17, 95% CI (-2.05, -0.30), P=0.009], and higher serum albumin (Alb) [MD=0.19, 95% CI (0.11, 0.27), P<0.000 01]. Meanwhile, the changes in serum CRP in patients over 45 years old [MD=-0.06, 95% CI (-0.48, 0.36), P=0.77] and serum IL-6 after 6 weeks of treatment [MD=-0.24, 95% CI (-1.14, 0.67), P=0.61] had no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion Non-surgical periodontal treatment has favorable effects on controlling 24-hour urinary protein quantity and serum Alb and reducing systemic inflammatory (CRP and IL-6) levels in patients under 45 years old.