01 January 2021, Volume 48 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
Expert Forums
Comparison of anterior tooth torque design in digital orthodontics
Zhao Zhihe
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  1-6.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021001
Abstract ( 431 )   HTML ( 108 )   PDF(pc) (1685KB) ( 508 )   Save

In orthodontic treatment, the torque of anterior teeth is of great significance, which affects not only the appearance of anterior teeth but also the occlusal relationship of posterior teeth. Thus, how to control the torque of an anterior tooth with digital technology has become a focus of research on orthodontic applications. However, controlling the torque of anterior teeth is difficult, and current designs have been confusing many orthodontists. Basing on the literature and clinical cases, we discuss the characteristics, key points, and design skills of for controlling the torque of anterior teeth of individualized labial appliance, individualized lingual appliance, and invisible appliance, to help orthodontists and provide a reference for the digital design of anterior teeth torque in clinic.

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Craniofacial growth and development in early orthodontic and orthopedic treatment
Jin Zuolin
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  7-11.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021002
Abstract ( 699 )   HTML ( 180 )   PDF(pc) (2428KB) ( 907 )   Save

The growth and development of craniofacial pattern are related to the occurrence and development of malocclusion. Understanding the physiological mechanism of the growth and development of craniofacial structures are important for the improvement of early growth. In the process of orthodontic treatment, adequate attentions should be paid to the bones, teeth, muscles and other aspects, which are the basic elements that orthodontists must pay attention to the process of diagnosis and treatment. This paper is written based on the growth and development characteristics of cranial and facial structures and combined with the characteristics of growth improvement, the related knowledge of early orthodontic treatment was expounded in order to provide reference for orthodontists.

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Periodontitis
Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in periodontitis affecting systemic diseases
Li Xin,Li Yan,Ding Xu,Xia Boyuan,Yu Weixian
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  12-17.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021004
Abstract ( 83 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1484KB) ( 52 )   Save

Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease that occurs in periodontal tissues, and its pathogenesis and effects on the system have been a hot issue in academic circles. Many scholars have shown that periodontitis is not only a common oral disease, but also a potential risk factor for systemic diseases. However, the mechanism of systemic diseases induced by periodontal disease is still unclear, which may be related to periodontal pathogens, inflammatory factors and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In recent years, studies have found that endoplasmic reticulum stress is an important pathway that mediates apoptosis and is closely related to systemic diseases. Some studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a regulatory role in the process of systemic diseases induced by periodontitis. However, few studies on the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in periodontitis affecting systemic diseases have been found, and further exploration is needed. This article reviews the research progress of endoplasmic reticulum stress in periodontitis affecting systemic diseases and aims to explore the internal relationship between periodontitis and systemic diseases and provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis and its related systemic diseases.

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Research progress on the relationship between chronic periodontitis and chronic kidney disease
Qi Xiaoling,Gan Tingbin,Huang Jiao
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  18-22.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021016
Abstract ( 71 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1440KB) ( 62 )   Save

Chronic periodontal disease not only implicates periodontal support tissues but also is related to systemic diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes. Chronic kidney disease is a common systemic disease that threatens human health by destroying renal function. In recent years, a large number of studies have shown that chronic periodontitis and chronic kidney disease may be related, and the treatment of periodontitis may improve renal function. This article reviews epidemiological investigations on the relationship between chronic periodontitis and chronic kidney disease, the effects of periodontal therapy on chronic kidney disease, and the possible mechanisms of the interaction between them.

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Research progress on the effects and mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis on vascular endothelial cells from different tissues
Lei Shuang,Yu Jingjun,Tang Xiaolin
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  23-28.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021006
Abstract ( 45 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1478KB) ( 39 )   Save

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a key putative pathogen in chronic periodontitis. P. gingivalis can adhere, invade and injure vascular endothelial cells and enter the distant organs and tissues, by which P. gingivalis can participate in the onset and progress of systemic diseases such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer s disease. However, recent studies have found that P. gingivalis has distinct pathogenicity and mechanism to vascular endothelial cells from different tissues. This paper reviews the research progress on the effects and mechanisms of P. gingivalis on vascular endothelial cells from different tissues and aims to broaden the view on the research of P. gingivalis with systemic diseases.

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Subgingival debridement and root planing
Yan Yue,Hou Jianxia
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  29-34.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021012
Abstract ( 69 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1446KB) ( 129 )   Save

Since the 1970s, root planing has become the core of non-surgical treatment of periodontitis to eliminate “infected cementum”. Subsequent studies on root endotoxin have concluded that excessive removal of the cementum by root planing is unnecessary, which also prompt the concept of “subgingival debridement”. At present, the mainstream view of standardized periodontal treatment still emphasizes the use of manual instruments to make the root surface biocompatible as an important procedure for removing the pathogens after subgingival debridement. Previous studies on root planing mainly focused on the comparison of ultrasonic subgingival debridement with manual subgingival scaling and root planing. Ultrasonic subgingival debridement has yet to be compared with ultrasonic subgingival debridement combined with manual root planing. This article reviews previous studies on subgingival debridement and root planing to provide guidance of decision-making for clinicians and references for future clinical research.

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Original Articles
Antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine on Candida albicans in vitro according to D2O-labeled single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy
Li Fan,Zhang Lijuan,Tan Kaixuan,Zhang Ying,Lu Jie,Li Shanshan,Yang Fang
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  35-40.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021019
Abstract ( 49 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (2635KB) ( 27 )   Save

Objective To evaluate the universality of D2O-labeled single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy and the bacteriostatic effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) on Candida albicans (C. albicans) in vitro. Methods The universality of D2O-labeled single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy was investigated by exploring the growth of C. albicans under various doses of D2O and the regularity of D2O intake by C. albicans on the basis of the temporal change in OD600 and C-D ratio, respectively. Furthermore, we determined the effects of inhibiting the growth and CHX metabolism on C. albicans according to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum inhibitory concentration based on metabolic activity (MIC-MA) values, using broth dilution test and D2O-labeled single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy, respectively. Results The growth of C. albicans was not significantly affected at concentrations below or equal to 30% D2O, and C. albicans can actively metabolize D2O, as indicated by Raman micro-spectroscopy results. Moreover, the C-D ratio of C. albicans at the stationary phase was positively correlated with D2O concentration. The MIC and MIC-MA of CHX were 4 and 8 μg·mL -1, respectively. Under the MIC, the growth of C. albicans was completely inhibited, but metabolic activity was active. Metabolic activity can be inhibited only when the concentration of 2×MIC was reached.Conclusion D2O- labeled single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy is suitable for evaluating the metabolism activity of C. albicans. The commonly used concentration CHX in clinical practice effectively inhibits the growth and even the metabolism of C. albicans.

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Three-dimensional finite element study on the effect of pulp opening cavity on the resistance of cracked teeth after full crown restoration
Ji Mengzhen,Qi Meiyao,Du Kexin,Quan Shuqi,Zhang Yuqiang,Zheng Qinghua
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  41-49.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021011
Abstract ( 61 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (18372KB) ( 97 )   Save

Objective To investigate the effect of traditional endodontic cavity and minimally invasive endodontics root canal therapy on the resistance of teeth restored with porcelain crowns. Methods Three dimensional virtual models of cracked teeth with three different depth of crack were made to simulate minimally invasive endodontics and traditional endodontic cavity, and complete root canal therapy and porcelain crown restoration. Under the condition of vertical loading and oblique loading, the distribution and numerical value of tooth stress were recorded. Results Under the two loading conditions, the stress of the teeth before the treatment was concentrated at the bottom of the crack, and the local stress concentration increased with the deepening of the depth of the crack. The local stress of the abutment was mainly distributed at the shoulder after the restoration of the porcelain full crown. The local stress concentration has been greatly alleviated. There was no significant difference in the effect of different endodontic cavity on the stress distribution and magnitude of cracked teeth. Conclusion The restora-tion of porcelain crowns after root canal therapy is an effective measure for the treatment of cracked teeth. Compared with the traditional endodontic cavity, the minimally invasive endodontics cannot improve the stress distribution of cracked teeth after full crown restoration.

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Expression and clinical significance of lipopolysaccharide binding protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma
Huang Junwen,Qiao Jie,Mei Zi,Chen Zhuo,Li Yang,Qiao Bin
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  50-57.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021013
Abstract ( 38 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (42320KB) ( 49 )   Save

Objective To investigate the expression and clinical importance of lipopolysaccharide binding protein(LBP) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods LBP expression in 48 OSCC tissues and matched adjacent normal tissues and LBP serum levels in 130 patients with OSCC and 90 normal individuals were measured by immunohistochemistry staining assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The relationship between LBP expression and the clinicopathologic characteristics of OSCC was analysed by statistical methods. The diagnostic value of LBP serum level in OSCC was explored via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results LBP expression was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues, whereas little was expressed in adjacent normal tissues (P<0.001). Furthermore, LBP expression was closely associated with T-classification, node lymph metastasis and clinical stage (P<0.01) but not with the pathological grading, sex and age of patients (P>0.1). Meanwhile, it was found that CD204 had the similar results in OSCC through immunohistochemistry staining assay. The LBP serum level in patients with OSCC abnormally increased compared with that in normal individuals (P<0.001). LBP serum concentration was highly correlated to T-classification and clinical stage (P<0.001). Area under the ROC was 0.876 (P<0.001), and the optional cut-off value was 0.733 μg·mL -1 with 93.3% specificity and 80.0% sensitivity. Conclusion LBP contributes to the tumourigenesis and development of OSCC and could become a promising biomarker that might provide a useful clinical value in the early diagnosis of OSCC.

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Reviews
Effect of adiponectin on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and its regulatory mechanisms
Chen Ye,Zhou Feng,Wu Qionghui,Che Huiling,Li Jiaxuan,Shen Jiaqi,Luo En
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  58-63. 
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a research hotspot for the treatment of cranio-maxillofacial bone diseases. The function of BMSCs with regard to proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival ability in the tissue environment determines the quality and speed of bone repair and reconstruction. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine factor secreted primarily by adipose tissue. Apart from being closely related to lipid metabolism, APN can also affect the process of osteogenesis by regulating the function of BMSCs in a variety of ways, which plays an important role in regulating the balance of bone-lipid metabolism. In the article, the biological characteristics of APN and role of APN in regulating the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, migration and survival ability of BMSCs and related signalling pathways are reviewed to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis.

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Research progress on the effects of microenvironment acid-base level in tissue-engineered bone regeneration
Li Peiyi,Zhang Xinchun
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  64-70.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021005
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After autogenous and xenogeneic bone transplantation therapy, bone tissue engineering has become a new method to repair maxillofacial bone defects. The osteogenic microenvironment is crucial to mobilising regenerative function of biological materials. The regeneration of tissue-engineered bone is affected by pH microenvironment through various osteogenic processes on the surface of artificial bone, such as protein adsorption, migration, adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteogenesis-related cells; secretion, maturation and biomineralisation of bone matrix; inflammatory response and vascular reconstruction of bone defects. Neutralising the acid substance in bone defects with alkaline materials correcting the acid microenvironment caused by hypoperfusion and local hypoxia is a potential method to create a suitable network for cell survival and tissue repair. In this paper, the research progress of microenvironment acid-base level in tissue-engineered bone regeneration is reviewed, providing a reference for the development and transformation of artificial bone materials.

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Research progress on orofacial muscle development and regeneration
Cheng Xu,Huang Yixuan,Li Jingtao,Shi Bing
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  71-76.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021014
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Orofacial muscle deficiency remains a common feature of congenital orofacial deformities. However, muscle augmentation strategies that address this defect are still lacking. Orofacial muscles emerge as an evolutionary novelty in the transition from passive filter feeding to an active predatory lifestyle. Consequently, a certain amount of discrepancy exists in the developmental trajectory and regeneration potential between orofacial muscles and limb and truck muscles, which are the stereotype of skeletal muscle studies. A comprehensive review of the embryonic origin, myogenic regulatory mechanism and regeneration capacity of orofacial muscle is provided in this paper to open new avenues in treating congenital orofacial deformities by improving orofacial muscle regeneration.

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Restoration strategy of dental implant for impacted teeth in the edentulous area
Wang Jia,Li Wenxia,Yin Lihua
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  77-81.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021008
Abstract ( 567 )   HTML ( 146 )   PDF(pc) (1418KB) ( 690 )   Save

Impacted teeth are teeth that have passed the eruption stage but are still attached in the jaw bone. Impacted teeth cause aesthetic and functional problems and may lead to the root resorption of adjacent teeth and development of jaw cyst and other lesions. In addition, impacted teeth in implant area may affect implants. Impacted teeth can be treated by extraction or orthodontic traction. In recent years, the restoration of missing teeth through implanting has received considerable attention. In this paper, the epidemiology and diagnosis of impacted teeth, orthodontic treatment, and implantation were reviewed for the purpose of providing reference for the clinical treatment of impacted teeth.

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Research progress on dentin as bone transplantation material
Zhao Binbin,Zhong Weijian,Ma Guowu
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  82-89.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021003
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The continuous development of dental materials has enabled the application of different types of bone graft materials to repair alveolar bone. Dentin originates from natural dental tissue. It is widely used as a new bone graft material in the field of bone regeneration. It not only has excellent biocompatibility, bone induction, and bone guidance capability but also a wide source range, low antigenicity, and simple manufacturing process. Its use enables the reuse of discarded teeth and reduces the cost of bone powder for patients. Moreover, given that it contains bone morphogenetic protein and a variety of growth factors, its absorption rate is suitable for new bone formation. Animal experiments and clinical studies have confirmed its good effect on bone regeneration. This article reviews the progress of research on dentin in the field of bone regeneration.

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The application and research progress on the curve of Spee in orthodontics
Guo Ziyuan,Xie Wenting,Li Wenlong,Zhang Xizhong
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  90-95.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021018
Abstract ( 130 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1459KB) ( 71 )   Save

The curve of Spee is an important feature of dentition shape and reference index for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. In the field of prosthodontics, a reasonable depth of the curve of Spee must be maintained, but complete flattening of the curve is often pursued in orthodontics. This article mainly discusses the definition, recent research, and different views on the curve of Spee in the fields of prosthodontics and orthodontics to help in diagnosis and treatment.

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Research progress on kissing molars: a review
Zhao Wenjun,Hao Xiaoqi,Wang Kaili,Liu Yuanyuan,Tang Bei,Ren Jiayin,Zheng Guangning
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  96-101.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021026
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Kissing molars (KMs) represent a rare clinical event and used in describing impacted teeth contacting occlusal surfaces in a single follicular space and their roots pointing in opposite directions. KMs often refer to completely impacted mandibular molars and usually occur at the third molar. Reports on KMs are few. The etiopathogenesis of this unique event is unknown, but a relation between KMs and mucopolysaccharidoses has been proposed. Several hypotheses that explain this phenomenon have been proposed, but detailed descriptions of related mechanisms are lacking. Moreover, treatment options for KMs, which manifest a unique form of dental impaction, are limited. In this paper, we review the definition, classification, etiology, and pathological mechanism of KMs and its treatment strategy described in the literature to provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of this peculiar malocclusion.

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Application of pulpotomy in primary teeth with deep caries
Zhao Mengjun,Li Yang,Wu Jiayuan
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  102-109.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021017
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Pulpotomy in primary teeth refers to the treatment involving the removal of infected coronal pulp tissues when infected pulps in the primary teeth are limited, the covering of the surface of a healthy radicular pulpal tissue with a capping agent, and the retention of vital pulp teeth. Owing to the popularity of minimally invasive therapy and the invention of novel bioactive materials, the curative effect of pulpotomy in primary teeth has been reconsidered. This paper reviews latest research on applications, indications, the treatment of the surface of remaining healthy radicular pulpal tissue, factors affecting the success rate of surgery, and the associated factors of pulpotomy in primary teeth.

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Application and progress of a digitalized minimally invasive technique in endodontics
Wang Ben,Xu Zhezhen,Wei Xi
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  110-118.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021025
Abstract ( 538 )   HTML ( 127 )   PDF(pc) (1494KB) ( 607 )   Save

Minimally invasive medicine is the trend of modern stomatology. In recent years, the emergence of digital technology has removed the limitations of traditional patterns in dental practice and has introduced novel ideas for minimally invasive dentistry. Digitalized minimally invasive techniques in dental practice include three-dimensional reconstruction, three-dimensional printing, and real-time tracking and are aimed at arresting the development of disease and preserving healthy tissues. Along with the rapid development of digital hardware and software, digitalized minimally invasive techniques have been gradually introduced to traditional processes for making treatment molds in endodontics, making diagnosis and treatment less invasive and more accurate and convenient. The review focuses on the clinical application of cone beam computed tomography, static and dynamic navigation systems in Endodontics together with its prospect for the future.

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Etiology and treatment of pruritus of the oral mucosa
Tao Huiqian,Dan Hongxia
Int J Stomatol. 2021, 48 (1):  119-124.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2021009
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Pruritus of oral mucosa is a kind of unpleasant feeling at one or more sites of the mucous membrane in the mouth that can cause scratching desire. It triggers tongue licking, biting, and hand scratching, leading to an itch-scratch cycle. It affects the daily life of patients to various extent. The causes of pruritus of oral mucosa are complex and diverse, involving both intra-oral and extra-oral factors. With the increasing demand of oral health care, many patients are searching for advice to solve this problem. The purpose of this review is to summarize the potential etiology and treatment options of pruritus of the oral mucosa in order to help the clinicians with the management of this symptom.

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