Objective To analyze the overall survival (OS) and relevant risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Methods To retrospectively review the clinical, pathological, and follow-up records of 78 patients after primary radical tumor resection. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable, survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, differences in OS rate were analyzed via a log-rank test, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were performed to analyze the factors associated with overall survival and prognosis. Results A total of 68 patients were included in the final study. The five-year OS rate was 55.9%. The median survival time of the patients who died of this disease within five years was 20.5 (6-52) months. The univariate analysis showed that clinical stage, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, pathological differentiation, recurrence, and metastasis were the exposure factors affecting survival time (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that pathological differentiation, recurrence, and metastasis were in-dependent factors affecting survival time (P<0.05). The patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 5.1% (4/78) in total 78 OSCC. Conclusion The survival prognosis of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma is correlated with clinical stage (TNM stage), tumor size, lymph node metastasis, pathological differentiation, recurrence, and metastasis. In this study, pathological differentiation, recurrence, and metastasis were independent factors affecting survival time. Some OSCC patients may be screened for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.