Objective To study the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of mouse embryonic osteoblast MC3T3-E1 on inorganic bovine bone treated with low temperature argon-oxygen plasma. Methods After the surface activation of inorganic bovine bone by low temperature argon-oxygen plasma, the surface morphology of inorganic bovine bone before and after treatment was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface elemental composition was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MC3T3-E1 cells were inoculated on the surface of inorganic bovine bone treated with low temperature argon-oxygen plasma, and the cell adhesion morphology was observed by SEM. The proliferation of cells on days 1, 3, and 5 was detected using the CCK-8 method, and the differentiation of cells on days 7 and 14 was detected using the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) method. The control group comprised the inorganic bovine bone without treatment. Results No significant change was observed in the surface morphology of the inorganic bovine bone of the control and the argon-oxygen groups. Relative to the composition of the material elements in the control group, the argon-oxygen group had decreased surface C element and increased O, Ca, and P elements. Under SEM, the cell adhesion of the argon-oxygen group was more complete, and the cell extended pseudopodia. The cell proliferation test results showed that the number of cell proliferation in the argon-oxygen group was significantly higher than that in the control group at days 1, 3, and 5. The cell differentiation results showed that the ALP activity in the argon-oxygen group was higher than that in control group at day 14. Conclusion The inorganic bovine bone treated with low temperature argon-oxygen plasma can promote the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of mouse embryonic osteoblast cells.