01 January 2020, Volume 47 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
Expert Forum
Analysis of digital complete denture technology
Wang Yong
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  1-9.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020001
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Expert Case Display
One case of socket shield technique for immediate implantation
Wang Jian,Zhang Xin
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  10-16.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020016
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The blood supply of the labial bone in the anterior teeth mainly relies on periodontal ligament and gingiva. Once tooth in this area is lost, blood from the periodontal ligament would disappear, and the labial bone would then collapse. Many solutions have been proposed to avoid this situation and retain the aesthetics of the dentition. Among these solutions, the “socket shield technique” reported by Hürzeler in 2010 acquired satisfying results. In this study, we applied this technique for the treatment of a patient whose right central incisor was broken in an accident and obtained a satisfactory aesthetic result.

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Methodological Introduction
Coronectomy: a conservative tooth extraction for mandibular third molar
Xie Yu,Zhou Yi
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  17-21.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020014
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The prevention of complications after exodontia has drawn increasing attention from oral surgeons. Malfunction of the inferior alveolar nerve, including paresthesia, following the extraction of the mandibular third molar extensively affects the quality of patients’ lives. At the end of the 20th century, coronectomy or intentional partial odontectomy was introduced into the oral surgical field from prosthodontics. This procedure has been proven to be effective in terms of safety, practicality, and complication rate after years of research and clinical application. This article aims to provide new insights into the practice of exodontia of the mandibular third molar by making a comprehensive review of coronectomy.

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Original Articles
Effects of enamel matrix derivative on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells
Yu Xiaohong,Liu Yu,Zeng Lian,Yang Yanling,Wang Zhou,Li Wei
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  24-31.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020006
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Objective To investigate the effects of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and the potential mechanism. Methods The primary cultured hPDLSCs were identified by flow cytometry, and the third generation cells were selected for experiments. The cell counting kit-8 assay was performed to detect the effect of different EMD concentrations (0, 20, 50 and 100 mg·L-1) on the proliferation of hPDLSCs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the effect of EMD on the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in different concentrations (0, 20, 50 and 100 mg·L-1). The effect of different EMD concentrations (0, 20, 50 and 100 mg·L-1) on collagen synjournal and mineralised nodule formation of hPDLSCs were detected through trichrome and Von Kosa’s staining. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were performed to detect β-catenin, RunX2, CaMKⅡ and NLK expressions after different concentrations of EMD and DDK1 were applied to hPDLSCs.Results EMD significantly promoted the proliferation of hPDLSCs, which increased with the increase in concentration and stimulation time of EMD. After EMD treatment with hPDLSCs, the formation of mineralised nodules and collagen synjournal increased significantly. Furthermore, the expressions of osteocalcin, collagenⅠand RunX2 were elevated. Moreover, the expressions of β-catenin, RunX2, CaMKⅡ and NLK were significantly increased with EMD treatment and inhibited by DDK1.Conclusion EMD can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in vitro through the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway.

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Effects of arecoline on proliferation and migration of human buccal mucosal fibroblasts in vitro
Li Huili,Fang Changyun,Su Zheng
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  32-36.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020027
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Objective The role of arecoline in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) was explored by investigating the effects of arecoline on the cell proliferation, migration and filament actin of human buccal mucosal fibroblasts in vitro. Methods The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, wound healing assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to detect the effect of arecoline at different concentration (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 µg·mL-1) for human buccal mucosal fibroblasts proliferation, migration and filament actin. Results Cell proliferation, migration and polymerization of filament actin of human buccal mucosal fibroblasts in vitro were enhanced by arecoline at lower concentrations (5, 10 µg·mL-1) (P<0.05), and inhibited by arecoline at higher concentrations (20, 40, 80 µg·mL-1) (P< 0.05). Conclusion Arecoline may change the proliferation and migration of human buccal mucosal fibroblasts through polymerization of filament actin.

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Comparative study of digital modified and traditional base type cyst plug marsupialization of cystic lesions of the jaw
Wang Jiayun,Hu Huan,Lin Yunhong
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  37-42.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020026
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Objective To compare the clinical application and therapeutic effect of digital modified and traditional base type cyst plug in the treatment of jaw cyst decompression. Methods Thirty-seven cases of jaw cyst patients were selected and randomly divided into two groups: digital modified cyst plug group and traditional base type cyst plug group. Compare the differences of the two groups of the cyst plug used in the technician production and clinical operation, the post-wear satisfaction score and the change of the cyst size after 12 months. Results The difference in average time between the technician production and clinical operation of the two groups of cyst plug was statistically significant (P=0.00). There was a statistically significant difference in the satisfaction scores of comfort and cleanliness between the two groups (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the satisfaction scores between the two groups (P>0.05). After 12 months of wearing the cyst plug, the cysts size were significantly reduced, but there was no statistical difference between the two groups (P>0.05).Conclusion The digital modified cyst plug and the traditional base type cyst plug can achieve good results after the decompression of the jaw cyst. The digital modified cyst plug has high timeliness and high patients satisfaction, so it can be used as a preferred treatment for postoperative decompression of the jaw.

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Oral Medicine
Research progress on serum biochemical substances associated with oral malignant transformation
Dong Yunmei,Tao Yan,Zhou Yu
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  43-50.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020025
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Research progress on oral lichenois lesions
Chen Yuxin,Zhou Yu,Chen Qianming
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  51-57.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020030
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Research progress on experimental model establishment of oral lichen planus
Shen Chenlu,Ye Weijia,Lü Kejia,Gao Bicong,Yao Hua
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  58-62.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020028
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Reviews
Research advances in SMO gene mutation in ameloblastoma
He Youya,Ji Tong
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  63-67.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020003
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The SMO protein encoded by the smoothened oncogene SMO is a crucial signal converter in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signalling pathway. This signalling pathway is closely related to the occurrence and development of a variety of human tumours. The abnormally activated SHH signalling pathway leads to tumorigenesis by affecting cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The study found that in the ameloblastoma, the SMO gene is the second most common mutated gene in addition to the BRAF gene, and this high mutation makes the SMO gene a hotspot in ameloblastoma molecular pathology. Many studies confirmed that the SMO gene mutations are related to the clinical features of ameloblastoma, such as location, histology, age and prognosis. These findings provided new therapeutic ideas for targeted therapy of ameloblastoma. This paper reviewed the research progress of the SMO gene mutations in ameloblastoma and their potential clinical significance.

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Application of saliva biomarkers in oral cancer screening
Huang Lu,Dai Jie,Wu Yanmin
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  68-75.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020017
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Saliva secreted by salivary glands is rich in DNA, RNA, proteins, microorganisms and metabolites. As a noninvasive and safe source, saliva can replace blood in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. With the rapid development of microarray technology, whole-genome sequencing, whole-transcriptome sequencing and other high-throughput technologies, this study found that saliva is a potential huge biomarker repository and excavated many disease-specific saliva markers. The saliva biomarkers were integrated for oral cancer and precancer screening. The advantages and disadvantages of using saliva as a biomarker in this field and as an improvement strategy were discussed to provide insights into the early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer in the future.

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Research progress on microRNA-mediated mechanisms between periodontitis and atherosclerosis
Zhou Jieyu,Liu Lin,Wu Yafei,Zhao Lei
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  76-83.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020004
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Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by destruction of periodontal supporting tissue, which is mainly due to plaque biofilm and host immune response. Periodontal pathogen can invade the blood circulation system by transient bacteraemia and trigger the vascular inflammation, which can definitely increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. MicroRNA, a small molecule RNA discussed in this paper, can regulate gene expression in epigenetics and participate in the regulation of inflammation. This review focuses on the mechanism of how periodontal pathogens regulate immune inflammatory response by microRNA to mediate the generation and development of atherosclerosis, which can provide new ideas for the research on the linkages on molecular mechanism between periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Moreover, exploring the specific microRNA expression patterns related to atherosclerosis and periodontitis can serve as a theoretical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in the future.

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Function of autophagy induced by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in bone metabolism
Zhu Junjin,Zhou Jiaqi,Wu Yingying
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  84-89.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020005
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) forms two functionally distinct multiprotein complexes, one of which is the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The mTORC1 plays a central role in regulating anabolic processes, including autophagy, which has recently captured extensive attention. Autophagy is an intracellular recycling pathway in which cellular components, including protein aggregates and organelles, are targeted to the lysosome for degradation. In recent years, an increasing amount of evidence shows that autophagy is mediated by mTORC1, which plays a critical role in bone metabolism. This review summarises the important role and mechanism of mTORC1-mediated autophagy in bone-related cells, especially osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

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An overview of bioactive glasses/chitosan composites for biomedical applications
Zou Jundong,Liu Dingkun,Yang Nan,Wang Mi,Liu Zhihui
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  90-94.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020002
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Inorganic bioactive glass (BG) and natural chitosan (CS) are applied widely in biomedical fields due to their biological properties. Recent studies showed that compared with individual components, composites have optimised mechanical and biological properties, indicating their enormous potential for future development. This paper briefly introduces the physical and chemical properties of BG and CS and emphasises the recent studies on various applications of the BG/CS composites in bone tissue engineering, controlled release of drugs and molecules and implant dressing based on literature.

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Effects of bone microenvironment cells on tumor bone metastasis
Zeng Kan,Li Xin,Wang Chenglin,Yang Jing,Ye Ling
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  95-101.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020009
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Bone metastasis is an important part of tumor metastasis and includes colonization, dormancy, and proliferation. However, tumor cells undergo a long period of dormancy after colonization. Several cells, including osteoblast, osteoclast, marrow stromal cell, immune cell, and vascular endothelial cell, live in the bone microenvironment and contribute to the progress of bone metastasis. In addition to self-regulation, tumor cells interact with various cells in the bone microenvironment during metastasis. This study aims to analyze the effect of bone microenvironment cells on tumor bone metastasis and further explore such process.

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Research progress on oral microorganisms affect Alzheimer’s disease
Zhang Mingshuang,Ba Te,Wang Wenbiao
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  102-108.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020012
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Oral microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi can cause a series of oral diseases, including caries and periodontitis. Some oral pathogens can cause systemic inflammation by secreting metabolites into the blood. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease, is the most common form of dementia. According to the World Health Organization, AD accounts for 60%-70% of dementia cases. With its morbidity increasing annually, AD has become one of the world’s most difficult problems. Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) deposition, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and loss of neurons with glial cell proliferation have been found in the brains of patients with AD. However, the pathogenesis of AD has not been elucidated. Recent studies reported that some oral microorganisms causing chronic periodontitis had become a significant risk factor for Aβ deposition and AD. Therefore, this article reviews the relationship between oral microorganisms and potential pathogenesis of AD.

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Orginal Article
Research progress on socket shield technique concurrent with immediate implantation
Supriya Shakya,Zhang Xin,Wang Jian
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  109-114.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020015
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During tooth extraction, the periodontal ligament, which is responsible for the formation of buccal bundle bone, is lost. Consequently, the blood supply to the bundle bone is discontinued, thereby affecting its nourishment and eventually causing its total or partial resorption. The retained root fragment preserves the periodontal ligament and supracrestal attachment of the tooth, thus avoiding buccal bone remodeling. The socket shield technique performed together with an immediate implant is a recently developed alternative method for the preservation and maintenance of tissues around a dental implant. In this method, a buccal root fragment is left in the socket instead of completely removing the tooth, and the implant is inserted palatal to it. This paper reviews the related articles of socket shield technique, which can help oral clinicians understand the technology more comprehensively.

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Progress for understanding the effect of berberine in oral diseases
Cui Yujia,Sun Jianxun,Zhou Xuedong
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  115-120.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020029
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Berberine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, occurring as one of the main active ingredients in many traditional herbs including coptis, barberry, phellodendron. Several studies have depicted its anticonvulsant, antihypertensive, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and antidiabetic biological effect. Depending on a rich and varied biological function, the potential of berberine for curing oral diseases has been discovered recently. Researchers focus on the relation of berberine to oral diseases, such as periodontitis, caries, periapical periodontitis, diseases of oral mucosa, oral/maxillofacial. The review pays attention to the biological function of berberine as well as its roles in oral diseases.

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Progress in the diagnosis of maxillomandibular transverse deficiency by cone beam CT
Wang Chunlin,Liu Conghua,Song Siyin,Zhou Lishu,Lin Lijia
Int J Stomatol. 2020, 47 (1):  121-124.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2020031
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Maxillomandibular transverse deficiency is an important factor leading to malocclusion. Clinically, it is often manifested as posterior crossbite, crowded dentition, exaggerated curve of Wilson, buccal tipping maxillary molars, lingual tipping mandibular molars and so on. In this paper, the diagnosis of maxillomandibular transverse deficiency using cone beam CT are reviewed.

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