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Table of Content

    01 September 2022, Volume 49 Issue 5 Previous Issue   
    Expert Forum
    Combined treatment strategy of oral implantology and endodontic microsurgery for bone augmentation and en-dodontic diseases in aesthetic area (part 1): application basis and indications
    Man Yi,Huang Dingming
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  497-505.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022084
    Abstract ( 557 )   HTML ( 92 )   PDF(pc) (4260KB) ( 709 )   Save

    In the clinical practice of dental implants, the implant-related surgery in areas with proximity to a periapical lesion of adjacent teeth was relatively particular but not uncommon. Chronic apical periodontitis of adjacent teeth could become a potential source of infection in bone augmentation surgery and cause early surgery failure/or extend to the apical area of the implant and cause retrograde peri-implantitis. Unlike the traditional treatment modality, a novel digital treatment modality involves the performance of implant-related surgery in conjunction with endodontic microsurgery of the adjacent tooth during one process to control the potential risk originating from apical periodontitis, completely remo-ving the infection from the apex of adjacent teeth and establishing sufficient apical sealing. This combined surgery aimed to eliminate the potential source of infection of adjacent teeth during implant-related surgery. Meanwhile, the autologous bone retained in the apical surgery could avoid a second operating area for bone harvesting in bone augmentation surgery, significantly improving the efficiency of surgery and thus further reducing patient trauma and saving medical costs. This article discussed the application basis and clinical indications of this novel combined treatment strategy.

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    Oral Microbiology
    Research progress on sugar transporter and regulatory mechanisms in Streptococcus mutans
    Gong Tao,Li Yuqing,Zhou Xuedong.
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  506-510.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022083
    Abstract ( 46 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (995KB) ( 30 )   Save

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is regarded as the major etiological pathogen. Sugars are the major carbohydrate sources used by bacteria and act as important substance basis for energy metabolism, material metabolism and physiological functions. Sugar transporter is the first process of sugar metabolism and is closely related to the formation of cariogenic virulence factors of S. mutans. This article reviewed the research progress on the ways of sugar transporter and its regulatory mechanisms of S. mutans to provide a reference for the research of sugar transport-related mechanisms in other oral bacterial.

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    Research progress on drug synergism with fluconazole in fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans
    Yang Sirui,Ren Biao,Peng Xian,Xu Xin
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  511-520.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022050
    Abstract ( 30 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1511KB) ( 16 )   Save

    Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic pathogen in invasive infections. Azoles, especially fluconazole (FLC) is the most extensively used antifungal drug. However, with the increasingly reported drug resistance, combinatory use of other antifungals that synergize with FLC can reduce the dose and toxicity of both drugs. This strategy represents a promising approach to the management of drug-resistance emergence. This article reviews the common mechanisms of drug resistance developed by Candida albicans and discusses the progress of research on the discovery of drug synergism with FLC to provide reference for the development of novel antifungals.

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    Original Articles
    Role of baicalin and mechanisms through which baicalin attenuates oxidative stress injury induced by lipopolysaccharide on macrophages
    Huang Weikun,Xu Qiuyan,Zhou Ting.
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  521-528.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022080
    Abstract ( 27 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (2327KB) ( 19 )   Save

    Objective We aimed to explore the role and mechanisms of baicalin in oxidative injury promoted by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) on macrophages. Methods Macrophages derived from human monocytic-leukemia cells (THP-1) were stimulated with LPSs with or without baicalin (5 and 10 μmol·L-1), and then cell injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and apoptosis were measured through cell counting kit-8 (CCK8), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, MDA, and SOD assays; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; and flow cytometry. The expression level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was determined by Wes-tern Blot (WB). Results LPS inhibited cell proliferation (P<0.000 1), induced LDH leakage (P<0.000 1), increased ROS level and MDA activity (P<0.000 1), decreased SOD activity (P<0.000 1), and increased apoptotic rate (P<0.000 1). Baicalin co-treatment attenuated damage induced by LPSs (P<0.000 1). Meanwhile, the cytoplasmic protein level of Nrf2 was up-regulated by 10 μmol·L-1 baicalin co-treatment (P<0.01). Conclusion Baicalin attenuated LPS-promoted oxidative injury on macrophages by up-regulating Nrf2.

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    Intervention effect of virtual reality technology on dental fear in the treatment of deep caries in children
    Ren Hai-xia,Liu Yingfeng,Liang Huimin,Li Jiayong,Wen Chunqin,Wang Chunmei
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  529-536.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022065
    Abstract ( 30 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (996KB) ( 14 )   Save

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the virtual reality (VR) technology in reducing pain perception and anxiety level in children with dental fear (DF) during the treatment of deep caries and analyze the effect of VR technology in relieving DF. Methods Children aged 5-8 years who need pulpotomy for deep caries were selected as research object. A total of 160 children were screened out by the children’s fear survey schedule-dental subscale (CFSS-DS), of which 120 and 40 cases were mild (CFSS-DS score=16-30) and moderate (CFSS-DS score=31-45) DF. Children with mild and moderate DF were randomly divided into four groups: mild DF VR (group 1, 60 cases), mild DF Tell-Show-Do (TSD; group 2, 60 cases), moderate DF VR (group 3, 20 cases), and moderate DF TSD (group 4, 20 ca-ses) groups. Groups 1 and 3 were intervened by wearing VR glasses (VR group), whereas groups 2 and 4 were intervened by TSD behavior guidance (TSD group). The effects of two intervention measures on alleviating children’s DF were evaluated using psychological evaluation (i.e., CFSS-DS), cooperative behavior evaluation, physiological response (heart rate), pain degree, and treatment compliance evaluation. VR glasses’ applicability assessment scale was used to analyze its applicability. Results All 160 children completed treatment. No significant difference in the CFSS-DS score and heart rate before treatment was observed between VR and TSD groups (P>0.05). The CFSS-DS score differences before and after treatment, heart rate du-ring treatment (in group 3), pain grade, and treatment compliance of TSD and VR groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in heart rate during treatment between groups 1 and 2 (P>0.05). The ratio of the heart rate difference (before and during treatment) to baseline was also not statistically significant (P>0.05). The intragroup comparison and heart rates during treatment were higher than those before treatment in four groups (P<0.01). Significant differences in CFSS-DS score differences before and after treatment were observed in groups 1, 3, and 4 (P<0.05) but not in group 2 (P>0.05). Children had high evaluation on the applicability of VR glasses. Conclusion The VR technology was superior to TSD guidance in reducing the anxiety and pain degree of children with DF, but no significant difference was observed in reducing the physiological response (heart rate) of children compared with TSD guidance. Children were satisfied with the application of VR glasses.

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    The socket-shield technique for immediate implant placement: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Gong Jiaming,Zhao Ruimin,Li Wanxin,Su Linhan,Yu Zhanhai,Li Jianxue
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  537-547.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022087
    Abstract ( 43 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF(pc) (7219KB) ( 67 )   Save

    Objective To systematically evaluate and compare the clinical effect of immediate implant placement with socket-shield technique (SST) and conventional immediate implant (CII). Methods Databases in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, and Wanfang were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared SST and CII, and citation indexes were carried out for the critical pieces of literature from May 2010 to November 2021. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Data were analyzed using the Review Manager 5.4 software. To discuss the effects of two techniques on the clinical performance of peri-implant soft and hard tissue, implant stability quotient (ISQ), and complications and failure rate. Results A total of 14 RCTs were inclu-ded in this study, including eight in English and six in Chinese. Follow-ups ranged from 6 to 36 months, with an average of 14.21 months. Meta-analysis showed that the SST group resulted in a significantly lesser labial bone plate changes (P<0.05), stabler margin bone level (P<0.05), and better esthetic presentation (P<0.05), except for the ISQ (P>0.05). How-ever, there were no significant differences in complications and implant failure rates between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion In the immediate implant placement procedure, employing SST has medium- to short-term positive effects on reducing the peri-implant bone resorption and maintaining the soft tissue morphology. To supervise the current manifestation, further evidence from long-term RCTs is needed.

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    Meta-analysis of the long-term effect of maxillary protraction on jaw growth and development
    Zhang Shan,Ge Xiaolei,Li Jie,Xie Xinyu,Chang Weiwei,Ma Wensheng.
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  548-555.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022053
    Abstract ( 40 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1070KB) ( 31 )   Save

    Objective To evaluate the long-term stability of maxillary protraction in the treatment of Angle Class Ⅲ malocclusion in children with mixed dentition. Methods A comprehensive search of Cochrane Library, PubMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, Wiley, China Academic Journal Full-text Database, China Biology Medicine Disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database, Wan Fang database and other foreign and Chinese databases was conducted until 18 August 2021. Literature screening, quality evaluation and data extraction were carried out by two scholars. Meta-analysis was carried out by RevMan5.3 software, and the evidence quality of the outcome index was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation evidence grading system. The results consist of active treatment changes and posttreatment changes, as well as the overall changes in SNA, SNB, ANB, Co-A, Co-Gn, SN-GoGn. Results Ten articles that met the requirements were included. The treated group, which comprised patients with Angle Class Ⅲ malocclusion treated by maxillary protraction, was compared with the untreated Class Ⅲ control group. The results of the meta-analysis showed statistical differences in the increase in SNA, SNB, ANB, Co-A and Co-Gn during the T1-T2 period (P<0.05) and no statistical difference in SN-GoGn (P>0.05). During the T2-T3 period, SNA, SNB, ANB and Co-Gn significantly decreased (P<0.05), but Co-A and SN-GoGn had no significant change (P>0.05). During T1-T3, SNA, SNB, ANB, Co-A and Co-Gn was significantly changed (P<0.05), whereas SN-GoGn had no significant change (P>0.05). Conclusion The analysis of patients with Angle Class Ⅲ malocclusion who were treated by maxillary protraction revealed that the maxillary and mandibular effects come from the active treatment period. Although the Class Ⅲ growth pattern had a tendency to be re-established during the posttreatment period, facemask therapy remarkably improved the maxillary and mandibular sagittal positions and maxilla-mandible relationship, promoted midface growth and inhibited mandibular growth during the long-term observation. More large samples and high-quality clinical studies are needed to verify this conclusion.

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    Reviews
    Role of autophagy in salivary glands of Sjögren’s syndrome
    Ye Yulin,Jiang Liting,Gao Yiming.
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  556-560.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022093
    Abstract ( 48 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (757KB) ( 26 )   Save

    Primary Sjögren ’s syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of exocrine glands, causing dry mouth, dry eyes, and multiple systemic manifestations. Autophagy is involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses. Autophagy dysregulation may break the immune homeostasis and participate in the incidence and deve-lopment of pSS. Here, we reviewed the relationship between autophagy and pSS from four aspects: the role of autophagy in the homeostasis and stress responses of salivary glands, the abnormal expression of autophagy-related proteins (ATG) in the pSS glands, the autophagy in innate immunity and adaptive immunity in pSS, and drug therapy aiming at autophagy of pSS. We provided new directions and ideas for further study on the mechanism of autophagy in pSS and ultimately contribute to prevention and treatment of pSS.

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    Research progress on diagnosis and treatment of root resorption
    Zeng Yanglin,Tan Xuelian,Song Dongzhe,Huang Dingming.
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  561-568.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022094
    Abstract ( 725 )   HTML ( 194 )   PDF(pc) (1385KB) ( 827 )   Save

    Internal root resorption is the loss of dentin from the root canal wall as a result of clastic activities caused by odontoclasts when the dental pulp is under inflammation. It has a low incidence and is closely related to trauma and infection. Its pathogenesis is not clear enough now. Internal root resorption is usually asymptomatic and often checked out by radiographic appearance, which is easily confused with external root resorption. However, it should be treated as soon as possible after diagnosis to prevent more dentin loss. At present, the common treatment for it is root canal therapy. So far, no review concerning internal root resorption is available. This review summarizes the progress of the etiology and pathogenesis, classification, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of internal root resorption to clarify the diagnosis and treatment of internal root resorption.

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    Research progress on root canal irrigation and disinfection drugs for pulp revascularization
    Li Zhuanzhuan,Gegen Tana
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  569-577.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022077
    Abstract ( 59 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (830KB) ( 43 )   Save

    Pulp revascularization is currently the only officially applied clinical endodontic regeneration therapy, which avoids the traditional mechanical preparation and creates favorable attachment and proliferation conditions for stem cells through thorough and effective root canal irrigation and disinfection, thus finally realizing the regeneration of dental pulp-dentin complex and enabling the root to continue to develop and mature. Therefore, root canal irrigation and root canal disinfection are essential for the success of endodontic revascularization. However, the use of root canal irrigation and disinfection drugs varies widely from one study to another. This article discusses the action mechanism, action effect, concentration selection, limitation and solution of root canal irrigation and root canal disinfection drugs in endodontic revascula-rization, which will provide certain reference value for the clinical selection of the best treatment plan for young permanent teeth with irreversible pulp damage.

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    Reseach progress on bioceramic root canal sealer
    Yan Yujia,Zou Ling.
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  578-585.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022071
    Abstract ( 44 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (817KB) ( 42 )   Save

    Root canal sealers are used in tight root canal filling. Their properties partly contribute to the success of root canal treatments. The development of the materials have promoted progress in clinical therapy. Bioceramics have good biocompatibility and bioactivity and have been used in many medical fields. Bioceramic root canal sealers have excellent physico-chemical and biological properties. This paper reviews the literature about the composition, biological properties, and physico-chemical properties of bioceramic root canal sealers and summarizes their laboratory and clinical research results.

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    Research progress on the roles and mechanisms of T-helper 17 cells and interleukin-17 in periodontitis
    Zhou Jianpeng,Xie Xudong,Zhao Lei,Wang Jun.
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  586-592.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022070
    Abstract ( 33 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (953KB) ( 10 )   Save

    Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease characterized by the destruction of periodontal supporting tissues, and plaque biofilms have been identified as the initial factors. Host immune response triggered by the colonization of plaque biofilms plays a critical role in the occurrence and development of periodontitis. T-helper 17 cells (Th17) and their main pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) are indispensable in periodontitis. Previous studies have de-monstrated increased infiltration of Th17 cell and a high level of IL-17 in periodontal lesions, and the increased levels are related to the severity of periodontitis. This review article aims to summarize progress in research on the roles and mechanisms of Th17 cells and IL-17 in periodontitis.

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    Progress in understanding the correlations between semaphorin 3A and common oral diseases
    Chen Huiyu,Bai Mingru,Ye Ling.
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  593-599.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022085
    Abstract ( 33 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (768KB) ( 19 )   Save

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a membrane-associated secreted protein produced by endothelial cells that regulate vascularization, cancer progression, bone biology, and immune homeostasis. Oral diseases are common and frequently occur in the human body. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have found that Sema3A expression changes with the progression of some common oral diseases. Sema3A inhibits apical periodontitis and pulpitis by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators to repress inflammation. In addition, it can also compete with vascular endothelial growth factors to bind its receptors to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Oral diseases are represented by pulpitis, periodontitis, periapical periodontitis, dental dysplasia, and oral cancer. Exploring the role of Sema3A in oral diseases is of far-reaching significance for the comprehensive analysis of the molecular mechanisms in the diseases and the development of therapeutic drugs for intervention and treatment methods. In this paper, we will discuss the correlations between Sema3A and oral diseases and their molecular mechanisms.

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    Research progress on the gene family with sequence similarity 83 member H related to autosomal dominant hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta and its mutation
    Guo Simin,Chen Ting
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  600-606.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022086
    Abstract ( 25 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1016KB) ( 18 )   Save

    Autosomal dominant hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta (ADHCAI) is a genetic disorder characterized by abnormal enamel formation. The enamel matrix is formed normally but without apparent mineralization. The ADHCAI has evident clinical and genetic heterogeneity. The affected tooth’s enamel thickness is normal however, the surface hardness is reduced, thus affecting the tooth’s function and aesthetics. Family with sequence similarity 83 member H (FAM83H) is a member of family with sequence similarity 83. It is widely expressed in a variety of human tissues and cells including ameloblasts, odontoblasts, and alveolar bone. It encodes an intracellular protein that is associated with keratin cytoskeleton and desmosomes, playing a role in intracellular molecular transport, cytoskeletal network regulation, and enamel formation. Various mutations have been identified in the FAM83H gene that leads to ADHCAI in different populations. In recent years, several studies explored the relationship between mutations in FAM83H and the occurrence and development of ADHCAI from multiple perspectives, such as vesicle trafficking and cytoskeletal organization. In this review, we will focus on the research progress on the gene FAM83H related to ADHCAI and its mutation.

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    Research progress on the effect of orthodontic extraction on upper airway
    Yin Maoyun,Zhang Yi,Hu Min.
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  607-613.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022066
    Abstract ( 265 )   HTML ( 77 )   PDF(pc) (753KB) ( 266 )   Save

    As a common fixed orthodontic method in clinic, extraction can significantly change the shape and position of the dento-maxillofacial structure by improving the angulation and position of anterior teeth. The upper airway is surrounded by cranio-maxillofacial soft and hard tissues. As a common channel of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts, the upper airway performs important physiological functions, such as respiration, speech formation, and swallowing. In recent years, many studies have confirmed the relationship between the dento-maxillofacial structure and the dimension and shape of the upper airway, but a consensus on whether extraction can affect the upper airway by changing the dental and maxillofacial structure has yet to be reached. On the basis of the relationship between the oral and maxillofacial structure and the upper airway, the influence of extraction on airway in patients with different ages and malocclusion was reviewed. The effects of bone surface type, dentition crowding, dental arch protrusion, anchorage type, mesial movement of molars, and retraction of incisors on the upper airway were discussed. This study may help clinicians improve orthodontic diagnoses and treatment plans and the safety and stability of orthodontic treatment.

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    Research progress on immune checkpoint inhibitor combined with radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
    Li Hongfang,Chen Zhong,Zhang Suxin.
    Int J Stomatol. 2022, 49 (5):  614-620.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2022064
    Abstract ( 30 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (729KB) ( 18 )   Save

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common malignant tumor. Most patients with HNSCC are in the advanced stage when they are diagnosed. Traditional treatment methods for HNSCC are limited, and the recurrence rate is more than 50%. The development of immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has brought a new option for HNSCC patients. ICIs can kill tumor cells or inhibit the development of tumors by activating or enhancing the antitumor immune function of the body. However, the effectiveness of ICI drug therapy alone is very limited, and only some patients can benefit. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the traditional treatments for HNSCC. RT can induces immune-mediated antitumor responses by directly killing tumor cells and promoting tumor antigen presentation. ICI has synergistic antitumor effect with radiotherapy, and the combination of ICI and radiotherapy can improve the antitumor immune effect. ICI has synergistic antitumor effect with radiotherapy, and the combination of ICI and radiotherapy can improve the antitumor immune effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms of action and clinical progress of ICI, and the related progress of ICIs combined with RT in HNSCC.

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