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Table of Content

    01 January 2023, Volume 50 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
    Expert Forum
    Message from editor in chief
    Shi Bing.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  1-1. 
    Abstract ( 26 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1104KB) ( 7 )   Save
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    Standardizing the surgical planning for unilateral microform cleft lip repair
    Li Jingtao,Shi Bing.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  3-9.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023001
    Abstract ( 125 )   HTML ( 41 )   PDF(pc) (1757KB) ( 134 )   Save

    Unilateral microform cleft lip involves mild but extensive abnormalities among cutaneous, muscular, and cartilaginous tissues in the nasolabial region. To date, no standardized protocol is available for microform cleft lip ma-nagement. Diversified surgical techniques can be adopted for each single deformity feature, and randomness is common during surgeons’ decision-making. Individualized management features a random combination of surgical techniques but requires a precise workflow. Basing on a comprehensive review of options for critical surgical maneuvers, we propose re-commendations for the establishment of standardized management philosophy for unilateral microform cleft lip.

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    Periodontitis
    Application of electrospun nanofibers in periodontal regeneration
    Yang Mengyao,Gao Xianling,Deng Shuli
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  10-18.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023017
    Abstract ( 32 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (856KB) ( 33 )   Save

    Nanofibers are prepared by electrospinning technique through a high voltage electric field. These materials have good biocompatibility and biodegradability. Simultaneously, materials with high porosity and high specific surface area can simulate the structure of the natural extracellular matrix and thus promote cell proliferation and differentiation. The biological properties of materials can be optimized by loading inorganic particles, drugs, and other active substances. Therefore, electrospinning nanofibers have been widely used in the regeneration of bone, cartilage, nerve, skin, and other tissues, and are also popular materials in periodontal tissue regeneration. Hence, this review briefly describes the preparation process of electrospun nanofibers, and introduces their application in periodontal tissue regeneration from the aspects of matrix composition, biological activity, and structure, aiming to provide a reference for its further research and development.

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    Research progress on the role and mechanism of occlusal trauma in the development of periodontitis
    Liu Tiqian,Liang Xing,Liu Weiqing,Li Xiaohong,Zhu Rui.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  19-24.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023020
    Abstract ( 46 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (799KB) ( 27 )   Save

    Periodontitis is the most common reason for adult tooth loss, which negatively impacts the physical and mental health of patients. Recent studies have shown that occlusal trauma might be a risk factor for periodontitis: although occlusal force did not initiate periodontal disease, it could aggravate periodontitis. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of occlusal trauma in promoting inflammation, inhibiting osteogenesis, stimulating osteoclastogenesis, and related mole-cular mechanisms during the onset and progression of periodontitis.

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    Research progress on resveratrol for the treatment of periodontitis and its bioavailability
    Li Qiong,Yu Weixian
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  25-31.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023013
    Abstract ( 26 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (834KB) ( 6 )   Save

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol compound that has extensive pharmacological activities and can be found in plants, such as dark grapes, berries, and peanut skins. Experimental studies showed that it plays a therapeutic role in periodontitis, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-bacteria, inhibition of bone resorption, and promotion of bone formation. However, resveratrol also faces some problems, such as rapid absorption, low bioavailability, and low water solubility. The improvement of cosolvent and the use of nanoparticles can solve these problems. This article reviews the research progress on resveratrol for the treatment of periodontitis and its bioavailability to provide reference for further research on resveratrol as a therapeutic drug and the development of suitable drug dosage forms.

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    Research progress on innate lymphoid cells in periodontal diseases
    Cheng Yifan,Qin Xu,Jiang Ming,Zhu Guang-xun.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  32-36.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023010
    Abstract ( 23 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (693KB) ( 8 )   Save

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a member of innate immune cells, which bridge the innate and adaptive immunities. ILCs are mainly distributed at mucosal barriers and participate in defense against pathogens, the repair of tissue, the maintenance of tissue integrity, and the formation of the lymphoid organ. They have been studied extensively in lungs and gastrointestinal tissues. On the basis of the expression of transcription factors, the secretion of cytokines, and the characteristics of functions, ILCs can be categorized into three subtypes: groups Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ. With the constant deepening of the studies on ILCs, ILCs can now be classified into six subsets: natural killer cells, ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, lymphoid-tissue inducers, and regulatory innate lymphoid cells. ILCs are found in healthy and inflammatory periodontal tissue and that different subtypes play distinct roles in the occurrence and development of periodontal diseases. Therefore, these cells offer new strategies for the therapy of periodontal diseases. This article will review the classification and functions of ILCs, the characteristics of ILCs in periodontal tissue, and the roles of ILCs in periodontal diseases.

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    Distribution and role of Gli1+ mesenchymal stem cells in teeth and periodontal tissues
    Li Peitong,Shi Binmian,Xu Chunmei,Xie Xudong,Wang Jun.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  37-42.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023009
    Abstract ( 24 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (1143KB) ( 3 )   Save

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in tissue development and organogenesis. Gli1 is one of the key transcription factors in the Hh signaling pathway that has been identified to be a reliable marker for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vivo. Gli1+ MSCs possess self-renewal ability and multidirectional differentiation potential. In teeth and periodontal tissues, Gli1+ MSCs can differentiate into a variety of cells, including odontoblasts, cementoblasts, fibroblasts, and osteoblasts, that contribute to tissue growth and homeostasis. In this review, we aim to summarize the current progress in the research on the distribution and function of Gli1+ MSCs in teeth and periodontal tissues and provide new insights into regenerative therapy for teeth and periodontal tissues.

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    Oral Microbiology
    Research progress on oral flora changes affecting the course of radiotherapy and chemotherapy-related oral mucositis
    Yang Mingyan,Zhang Fan,Zhao Lei
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  43-51.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023012
    Abstract ( 17 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (882KB) ( 8 )   Save

    Head and neck radiotherapy and chemotherapy (referred to as chemoradiotherapy) can cause changes in oral microbiota diversity and community structure, including decreased abundance of health-related commensal bacteria, increased abundance of some Gram-negative bacteria, and changes in the fungal community dominated by increase in Candida albicans. These changes can lead to an increase in the risk and severity of oral mucositis (OM). Chemoradiotherapy causes direct or indirect DNA damage through reactive oxygen species, promotes the dysbacteriosis of microbial flora, destroys the immune system, and enhances inflammation. Cell damage forms ulcers, leading to bacterial translocation and colonization. In addition, nuclear factor-κB, Toll-like receptor, and other signaling pathways are activated, thus inducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promoting the development of OM. The treatment of OM is currently a research hotspot for oral flora regulation. Probiotics or probiotic mixtures can be used to prevent and treat OM, and the prophylactic use of antifungal agents can reduce the number of oral Candida infections. This paper reviews the effects of head and neck chemoradiotherapy on oral microflora changes and their correlation with OM to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-related OM.

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    Research progress on the mechanism of Fusobacterium nucleatum promoting the initiation and development of colorectal cancer
    Luo Wanyi,Han Juxi,Zhou Xuedong,Peng Xian,Zheng Xin
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  52-60.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023011
    Abstract ( 21 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1017KB) ( 7 )   Save

    Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that widely colonizes the human oral cavity and is recognized as a periodontal pathogen. F. nucleatum plays an important role in oral diseases, such as periodontal disease and oral cancer, and is biologically associated with a variety of systematic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, alveolar bone loss, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and cancers of various systems. The correlation between F.nucleatum and colorectal cancer (CRC) is well documented. We conclude that periodontitis may be a risk factor for inflammatory transition to cancer in patients with intestinal inflammation. F. nucleatum migrates to the intestine through the digestive tract and blood circulation and binds specifically to CRC cells via the adhesin FadA/E-cadherin and adhesin Fap2/disaccharide tumor marker in gal-GalNac pathways. F.nucleatum can adapt to the highly metabolic, oxygen-lacking environment of tumors and further promote the glycolysis of tumors, which leads to the high abundance of F.nucleatum in CRC. By binding to CRC cells, F.nucleatum regulates canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and nuclear factor kappa-B signaling pathways, thus promoting the initiation, metastasis, and chemoresistance of cancer cells and affecting the tumor immune microenvironment.

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    Original Articles
    Clinical data analysis of 458 cases of supernumerary teeth in the upper incisor area
    Liu Xiaolin,Ren Qun,Gao Xiaozhe,Bai Jiuping,Wang Yu,Li Xiangjun.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  61-65.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023014
    Abstract ( 28 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (788KB) ( 10 )   Save

    Objective This study aims to analyze and summarize the clinical characteristics of supernumerary teeth in the upper incisor area, and provide a reference for its diagnosis and treatment. Methods A total of 458 patients were collected from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital of Stomatology, Hebei Medical University. Herein, their age, sex, number of supernumerary teeth, direction, reasons, anesthesia methods, and operation time were statistically analyzed using the SPSS21.0 software package. Results There were 710 supernumerary teeth in 458 patients with an average age of (8.64±4.31) years, and the male-to-female ratio was 3.63:1. The number of children is the largest with 387 cases (84.50%). A total of 231 cases (50.44%) had two supernumerary teeth and 218 cases (47.60%) had one supernumerary tooth. A total of 362 (50.99%) were in an inverted position. Among the clinical manifestations, 153 cases (33.41%) were found by unintentional imaging examination. Meanwhile, 390 cases (85.15%) chose general an-esthesia. The mean operation time was (23.42±13.95) min. There was no statistical difference observed in the number, direction, and eruption state of the supernumerary teeth between different sexes (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the number of supernumerary teeth among different age groups (P>0.05). However, there were significant differences observed in the direction and eruption status of supernumerary teeth among different age groups (P<0.05). Conclusion The supernumerary teeth in the upper incisor area are more common in childhood, and the incidence of male teeth is higher than that of female teeth, which are often found accidentally by patients, particularly one or two teeth, mainly in an inverted position.

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    A preliminary study of the effect of posterior pharyngeal flap surgery on the maxillofacial growth of patients after palatoplasty
    Zhang Yuning,Zeng Ni,Zhang Bei,Shi Bing,Zheng Qian.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  66-71.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023022
    Abstract ( 24 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (846KB) ( 5 )   Save

    Objective The study aimed to analyze the effect of posterior pharyngeal flap surgery on the maxillofacial growth of patients after palatoplasty by measuring the maxillofacial soft and hard tissue morphology. Methods 56 cases were included in this study. Group A included 21 cases who had undergone posterior pharyngeal flap surgery after palatoplasty. Group B (Control Group 1) included 15 cases who had had Furlow palatoplasty surgery after palatoplasty. Group C(Control Group 2) included 20 patients who had not received secondary operation after palatoplasty. At least one year postoperative lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained from all patients. Three aspects of hard tissue (skull base, maxilla, facial height) and 10 facial contour parameters of soft tissue were evaluated. SPSS 21.0 was used to analyze data. Results For the patients aged 4-7 years, there was no significant difference in the growth of soft and hard tissues among three groups in both horizontal and vertical directions. Conclusion Posterior pharyngeal flap surgery had no significant effect on maxillofacial growth and development in patients after palatoplasty.

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    Hotspots of clear aligner technology research: a visual analysis
    Xin Lü,Fan Yongjie.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  72-81.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023008
    Abstract ( 34 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (3416KB) ( 17 )   Save

    Objective To analyze the related literatures on clear aligner technology (CAT) to understand its research status, hotspots, and frontiers. Methods CiteSpace5.8.R3 software and Excel2019 software were used to visually analyze the related literatures on CAT collected in the Web of Science Core Collection database from January 1, 2000 to November 1, 2021. Results A total of 729 CAT-related literatures were retrieved, and 433 literatures were visualized after re-weighting and strict inclusion. The number of articles published had experienced three stages: initial, steady and rapid growth. The research hotspots mainly included: CAT effectiveness, material properties, biomechanics, and the effects of CAT on oral health-related quality of life. Combined with the literature study, it was found that orthognathic surgery and three-dimensional technology were the frontier and future trends of research. Conclusion The visual analysis of the lite-rature shows the hotspots and frontiers of clear aligner technology, which provides a reference for future research.

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    Methods
    Improved application of a novel device that could achieve dental arch mesialization
    Zhu Yeling,Wang Xi,Sun Tiantong,Wang Lina,He Xiaoming,Li Jiazhi
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  82-90.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023007
    Abstract ( 30 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (7019KB) ( 13 )   Save

    In clinical practice, few orthodontic methods could be used to achieve simple mesial movement of molars, mesial movement of anterior teeth, anterior movement of whole dentition, or correction of midline of dentition. However, they are complicated or they have many side effects. Combining two cases, this paper introduces a new type of spring pushing device, which could achieve the whole dentition forward, the posterior teeth forward to close the gap, the anterior teeth forward, or the midline correction. The spring pushing device is composed of four components, such as the force control lever, the force pushing spring, the force transfer angle, and the force arm. The biomechanical structure principle and clinical application effect of the device were analyzed and discussed to provide a new treatment method for similar clinical patients.

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    Reviews
    Research progress on root canal sonic irrigation
    Huo Zhiyuan,Yue Lin,Zou Xiaoying.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  91-99.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023004
    Abstract ( 30 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (832KB) ( 21 )   Save

    The core of root canal therapy is to control the infection in root canal systems. Given the complexity of root canal anatomy and the limitation of mechanical preparation, using mechanical debridement alone is difficult when aiming to achieve the thorough cleaning of the root canal system. Thus, chemical irrigation is necessary for root canal disinfection. Conventional Needle Irrigation is limited due to its inserted depth or root canal configuration. An increasing number of activated irrigation techniques have been used to improve the irrigation effect. In recent years, sonic root canal irrigation has attracted considerable attention due to the updating of its instruments and equipment. This present review addresses the development, principle, and functional features of sonic irrigation, with the aim of providing a reference for clinical practice.

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    Clinical research progress on glandular odontogenic cyst
    Qin Yichun,Tan Xuelian,Huang Dingming.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  100-107.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023023
    Abstract ( 27 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (880KB) ( 9 )   Save

    Glandular odontogenic cyst is a relatively rare oral and maxillofacial cyst, which is not commonly reported in the literature and is mostly in the form of scattered case reports. However, it has characteristics of aggressive behavior, high recurrence rate, poor prognosis, and harmful influence. In addition, glandular odontogenic cyst often presents as painless swelling in the mandible. Hence, it is difficult to be distinguished from other odontogenic cysts and tumors because it lacks typical clinical symptoms and radiological features. Therefore, this review summarizes the epidemiological characteristics, highlighting the key diagnostic points, differential diagnosis, and common treatment methods, which are aimed at helping dentists to timely diagnose and treat the disease.

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    Children with Williams-Beuren syndrome associated with cranial and maxillofacial deformity
    Li Ting,Yang Xuecai,Wang Junwei.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  108-113.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023006
    Abstract ( 33 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (812KB) ( 10 )   Save

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM 194050) is a rare and multi-system developmental disease asso-ciated with cranial and maxillofacial deformity. It is associated with the partial loss of the 7q11.23 region, including the encoded elastin gene. WBS affects about 1 in 7 500 to 1 in 20 000 live births, with equal numbers of boys and girls being affected, in all ethnic groups around the world. The common clinical manifestations include typical craniofacial abnorma-lities, cardiovascular diseases, mental retardation, cognitive deficiency, hypercalcemia, and so on. Although clinical diagnostic criteria are available for WBS, the confirming diagnosis requires rapid and accurate gene detection. WBS is a rare multi-system developmental disease and thus requires multi-disciplinary collaborative treatment, mainly including medical monitoring, drug and surgery treatment, and speech language and behavioral intervention. Given that WBS usually occurs in infants and young children, this article reviews the overview, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of WBS in children to improve the understanding of medical staff regarding this condition.

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    Application of suture anchor in oral and maxillofacial surgery
    Yashengjiang Muhesen,Tuerdi Maimaitituxun
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  114-119.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023016
    Abstract ( 23 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF(pc) (771KB) ( 5 )   Save

    Soft tissue anchoring fixation is to fix the target soft tissue through anchors and matching sutures implanted into the bone cortex. This technique is widely used in orthopedics, mainly for soft tissues such as ligaments and tendons. Its application in oral and maxillofacial soft tissue defects has gradually matured to repair and functional reconstruction. This study discusses the basic principle, operation points, types, and scope of suture anchors as well as the specific application of this technique in oral and maxillofacial surgery, also puts forward the existing problems and possible applications with prospects of them in the future.

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    Research progress on the regulation of bone remodeling by macrophage-derived exosomes
    Liu Yi,Liu Yi.
    Int J Stomatol. 2023, 50 (1):  120-126.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2023015
    Abstract ( 38 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1627KB) ( 17 )   Save

    Macrophages are the major components of human innate immunity and are closely related to bone tissue. Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles released by all cells, thus carrying nucleic acid and other information from the source cells to organize the function of target cells. Studies have demonstrated that macrophage-derived exosomes can effectively regulate bone remodeling, modulate the microenvironment in a variety of ways, and then affect osteogenesis. This paper summarizes the research progress onthe effect of macrophage-derived exosomes on bone remodeling to provide a reference for the development of therapeutic strategies.

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