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Table of Content

    01 November 2019, Volume 46 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Expert Forum
    Digital planning strategies in aesthetic areas
    Cai Xiaoxiao
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  621-630.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019099
    Abstract ( 1199 )   HTML ( 58 )   PDF(pc) (5380KB) ( 691 )   Save

    Implant treatment in aesthetic zones has always been difficult in implant therapy. With the development of digital technology, the treatment in aesthetic zones acquires new connotation. This article expounds the implant treatment protocol in aesthetic zones in the digital era from the aspects of pre-implant evaluation and design, digital implant surgery, and digital prosthesis. Digital smile design (DSD) achieves the ideal position and shape of the prosthesis by referring to the patient’s face shape and tooth shape. Surgical guide and navigation system ensure the optimal and most rational implant position. The digital aided bone augmentation makes the augmentation effect precise and controllable. Digital aided prosthesis not only provides comfortable experience for patients, but also brings more efficient digital workflow for doctors. In conclusion, this paper elaborates the implant therapy mode of aesthetic area in the digital era, in order to provide reference for clinicians to carry out implant therapy in aesthetic zones.

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    Orginal Articles
    Expression of zinc finger protein 32 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma stem cells
    Chen Hongli,Yang Jing,Yin Gang,Li Haoyuan,Qiao Yan
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  631-639.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019096
    Abstract ( 996 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF(pc) (2579KB) ( 288 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the expression of zinc finger protein 32 (ZNF32) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the relationship between the expression of ZNF32 in OSCC and the clinical features, and to explore the effect of ZNF32 on OSCC cancer stem cells (CSCs).Methods Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of ZNF32 mRNA in 45 OSCC tissues and 15 normal oral mucosa tissues. The relationship between the expression of ZNF32 in OSCC tissues and clinical features was analyzed. Magnetic beads were used to sort CSCs in the OSCC cell line Cal-27. Western-blot was used to detect the expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 4 (OCT4), Nanog homeobox (Nanog), sex determining region Y-box2 (SOX2) stem marker protein and ZNF32 in CSCs. After transfected with ZNF32 siRNA (si-ZNF32) and control (si-NC) for 48 h,3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) was used to detect the proliferation, plate clones were used to detect the ability of CSCs to form clones. Transwell assay was used to detect the metastasis ability of CSCs. Western-blot was used to detect the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) proteins in CSCs.Results The expression of ZNF32 mRNA in OSCC tissues was significantly higher than that in normal oral mucosa. The high expression of ZNF32 mRNA was significantly correlated with OSCC tumor low differentiation, advance TNM stage and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). The expression of OCT4, Nanog and SOX2 stem marker proteins was significantly increased in CSCs. The expression of ZNF32 in CSCs was significantly higher than that in OSCC cells Cal-27 and human oral keratinocyte (P<0.05). After transfection with ZNF32 siRNA, the cell proliferation, plate clone formation and metastasis ability of CSCs decreased, and the expression of pSTAT3 protein in CSCs cells decreased (P<0.05).Conclusion ZNF32 is highly expressed in OSCC tissues and cell lines, and high expression is associated with low tumor differentiation, advanced TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Interfering with the expression of ZNF32 and inhibits the biological characteristics of OSCC CSCs. ZNF32 can be used as a potential treatment molecular targets for OSCC.
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    Cone beam computed tomography study on root and root canal morphology of mandibular second permanent molars in Guangfu population in Lingnan area
    Li Qi, Huang Shaohong
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  640-649.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019105
    Abstract ( 1093 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF(pc) (1999KB) ( 293 )   Save
    Objective To research the root and root canal morphology of mandibular second permanent molars in Guangfu population of Lingnan area.Methods A total of 1 279 mandibular second permanent molars were collected from the 815 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of Guangfu population. The root and root canal morphology were observed and counted. The results are compared and analyzed with similar studies at home and abroad in recent years. Results The double roots type, C-shaped root type, conical fusion root type, and three roots type of mandibular second permanent molar accounted for 57.16%, 32.84%, 9.77% and 0.23%, respectively. The detection rate of double roots type in males was higher than that in females (P<0.05), but that of C-shaped root type was on the contrary. There were significant differences in the detection rate of double roots type among different age groups in women, and so was that of C-shaped root type (P<0.01). The root canal morphology in mesial root of the double roots type was 38.58% in type Ⅳ (2-2), 28.73% in type Ⅱ (2-1) and 22.98% in type Ⅰ (1-1), and the detection rate of type Ⅰ (1-1) root canals in females was significantly higher than that in males (P<0.01), but that of typeⅣ (2-2) root canals was the opposite. Type Ⅰ (1-1) root canals were the main type of distal root, accounting for 81.67%, and the difference among the root canal morphology detection rate of distal and mesial roots had statistical significance (P<0.01). The detection rate of C-shaped root canals in females was higher than that in males (P<0.05), and the detection rates of various root canal morphology in different parts of root canal had statistical significance (P<0.01). Among conical fusion root types, C-shaped root canal type was 62.40%, multiple root canal type was 20.00%, single root canal type was 17.60%, and the detection rate of multiple root canal type in males was significantly higher than that in females (P<0.01). The morphological symmetry of bilateral root was 68.10%, and that of bilateral root and root canal was 62.93%. Conclusion The root and root canal morphology of mandibular second permanent molars in Guangfu population of Lingnan region is complex and diverse, which is different from other regions and races at home and abroad.
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    A sampling survey on oral health of 12-14-year-old adolescents in Tianjin based on the epidemiological characte-ristics of dental fluorosis
    Hu Jing,Dai Yanmei,Feng Zhaofei
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  650-656.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019098
    Abstract ( 1044 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (1488KB) ( 385 )   Save
    Objective This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis and related oral diseases in Tianjin and analyse the influence of dental fluorosis on the oral health status of 12-14-year-old adolescents in Tianjin.Methods Stratified cluster random sampling was used for sampling. Data collection was combined with oral health examination and questionnaire survey.Results The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis was 43.7%, and the community index of dental fluorosis (CFI) was 0.97. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was mild. The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis in the urban area was 63.9%, and the CFI was 1.47. The level of dental fluorosis in the urban area was moderate, and a significant difference was noted between the urban and rural areas. The prevalence of dental caries was 33.5%, the decay missing filling tooth rate was 0.67, the gingival bleeding rate was 61.3% and the calculus rate was 55%. These rates of fluorosis were higher than those of non-fluorosis. The self-evaluation of fluorosis adolescents influenced social interaction, and teeth grinning was more affected than non-fluorosis.Conclusion The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Tianjin is mild, and public health measures are necessary to control the concentration of fluoride in water. The preva-lence of dental caries is high, especially in the first and second permanent molars. Professional oral health preven-tion for fluorosis adolescents should be strengthened, and further actions on oral health promotion are necessary.
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    Reviews
    Research progress of protease-activated receptors on different types of cells in periodontal tissue
    Lu Kexin,Zhang Diya,Wu Yanmin
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  657-662.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019077
    Abstract ( 544 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF(pc) (1338KB) ( 205 )   Save
    Protease-activated receptors (PARs), which are widely expressed transmembrane proteins, may induce inflammatory response once activated by a variety of endogenous and bacterial enzymes. Gingival epithelial cells, gingival fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, monocytes, macrophages and T lymphocytes exist in the periodontal tissue. In the development of periodontitis, the activated PARs of these cells are involved in the release of inflammatory factors and chemokines that cause gingival inflammation and alveolar bone destruction. Up-to-date data has shown the roles of PAR-1 and PAR-2 in periodontitis. However, the roles of PARs in hinge on different types of cells in the periodontal tissue have not been reviewed. Thus, the present review will focus on the current progress in the expression and functions of PARs.
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    Research progress on cross-kingdom interactions between Candida albicans and common oral bacteria
    Hu Yao,Cheng Lei,Guo Qiang,Ren Biao
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  663-669.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019081
    Abstract ( 704 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (1372KB) ( 350 )   Save

    Candida albicans is one of the most prevalent commensal species of human microbiota, which can be detected in the oral cavity of 30%-50% healthy adults. However, it is also an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe skin, mucosal or bloodstream infections. The impact of C. albicans typically depends on its interaction with bacteria. For example, together with other bacteria, C. albicans can participate in the development of caries, denture stomatitis and mucosal infections. Therefore, in this review, the interactions between C. albicans and common oral bacteria and the possible mechanisms are summarised, thereby providing novel ideas on the clinical prevention and treatment of common oral diseases.

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    Research progress on Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles
    Zhang Zhiying,Liu Dongjuan,Pan Yaping
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  670-674.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019076
    Abstract ( 746 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF(pc) (1319KB) ( 484 )   Save

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the major periodontal pathogens. Studies have shown that outer membrane vesicle (OMV) can exchange information with host cells and other microorganisms and transmit virulence factors to cause changes in host cells. Virulence factors contained in OMV mainly include adhesins and proteolytic enzymes, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of Porphyromonas gingivalis infection. This paper reviews the occurrence of Porphyromonas gingivalis OMV and its role in the pathogenesis of Porphyromonas gingivalis infection, thereby providing a reference for the in-depth study ofPorphyromonas gingivalis OMV.

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    Advances of dental pulp stem cells in osteogenic microenvironment
    Zhou Tingru,Li Yongsheng
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  675-679.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019097
    Abstract ( 916 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF(pc) (1266KB) ( 441 )   Save

    Dental pulp stem cells possess high proliferation rates and multi-lineage differentiation potential. These features provide them with unique advantages and prospects in the repair of oral and maxillofacial bone tissue with bio-scaffold materials. Hence, dental pulp stem cells are optimised cells in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the regeneration of bone tissue, a suitable microenvironment is necessary for the osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. In this review, we will examine the research progress of cytokines, scaffolds and drugs of dental pulp stem cells in an osteogenic microenvironment.

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    Axon guidance molecules and their role in oral tissue regeneration
    Sun Zhaoze,Liu Shuang,Li Shu
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  680-686.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019091
    Abstract ( 588 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1443KB) ( 167 )   Save

    During the development of the nervous system, axon guidance molecules guide the axons to grow along a particular path in a very precise manner. With increasing research on axon guidance molecules and their receptors, results have demonstrated that axon guidance molecules do not only guide axon growth but also participate in angiogenesis, bone regeneration and the development and regeneration of oral tissues through various signalling pathways. Such work provides new ideas for the study and development of treatments for oral diseases. This article reviews the related roles of the four major axon guidance molecules (Slits, Semaphorins, Netrins and Ephrins) in tissue regeneration and oral tissue regeneration.

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    Role of atomic force microscopy in research on microbial adhesion force
    Wang Rui,Gai Kuo,Liu Mengqi,Jiang Li
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  687-692.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019080
    Abstract ( 637 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (1608KB) ( 487 )   Save

    As a powerful tool for surface imaging and mechanical detection, atomic force microscopy (AFM) plays an important role in the exploration of microbial morphology and mechanics because of its advantages of nanometre resolution, piconewton force sensitivity and liquid imaging. This paper outlines the latest advances in various imaging modes and force spectroscopies and the cooperation of these technologies based on AFM. It also introduces the applications of AFM in the study of adhesive mechanical properties between bacteria and substrates, bacteria and bacteria, bacteria and bacteria biofilms, thereby providing a new way to research bacteria adhesion mechanics.

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    Applications and prospects on endodontics based on magnetic resonance imaging
    Liu Tongxi,Ke Xing,Yang Jian
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  693-698.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019100
    Abstract ( 1048 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF(pc) (1496KB) ( 588 )   Save

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a non-invasive imaging method, is not only applied to the diagnosis of whole-body soft tissue disease, but also gradually shows its advantages in the diagnosis, treatment and evaluation of the endodontics. This article introduces the potential applications and prospects of MRI in endodontics from reviewing local and international studies in recent years.

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    Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence in the clinical treatment of caries and periodontal diseases
    Chen Yanyan,Peng Xian,Zhou Xuedong,Cheng Lei
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  699-704.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019103
    Abstract ( 767 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF(pc) (1479KB) ( 438 )   Save

    Since quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) was invented, it has been applied in detection and quantification of incipient caries. With the development of technology, the clinical application of QLF has been continuously developed. Also, it can detect and quantify the red fluorescence from plaque, which is thought related to periodontal diseases and the cariogenic ability of plaque. This article reviewed the most recent findings about the clinical application of QLF in caries and periodontal diseases.

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    Research progress on the mechanism of Candida albicans in oral carcinogenesis
    Wen Shuqiong,Guo Junyi,Dai Wenxiao,Wang Dikan,Wang Zhi
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  705-710.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019104
    Abstract ( 1245 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF(pc) (1587KB) ( 377 )   Save

    Microbial infection is one of the important causes of carcinogenesis. To date, an increasing number of researches have indicated that Candida albicans can increase the patients’ risk of carcinogenesis and tumor metastasis through the immunosuppressive state. Recent studies have demonstrated that Candida albicans promote the carcinogenesis through several mechanisms such as producing carcinogenic byproducts, triggering inflammation and inducing T helper cell 17 response. Here, we provide an overview of the research progress of oncogenic potential of Candida albicans and discuss the relationship between Candida albicans and cancer, trying to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer.

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    Research progress on the evaluation and management of radiation-induced xerostomia
    Chen Dong,Yang Zheng,Jiang Li
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  711-717.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019101
    Abstract ( 832 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF(pc) (1630KB) ( 489 )   Save

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is a common complication after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. It significantly affects quality of life in survivors of head and neck cancer. In this review, the evaluations of xerostomia including saliva secretion function, imaging examinations and subjective measurements were discussed, as well as the management before, during and after radiotherapy. They provided evidence and approach for reducing morbidity of xerostomia and increasing quality of life in patients under radiotherapy.

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    Effect of bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy operation on the displacement of proximal segment of mandible
    Lin Yangyang,Hou Min
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  718-723.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019102
    Abstract ( 577 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (1561KB) ( 285 )   Save

    Bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) operation is the most classical surgical method for treating mandibular deformity and with the deepening of research. The intraoperative skills and postoperative complications were significantly changed than previously. At the same time, the scholars are also paying attention to the displacement of the proximal segment, as it may be related not only to postoperative recurrence but also to temporomandibular joint symptoms, in addition to the effect of postoperative satisfaction. This article will review the effect of BSSRO operation on the displacement of proximal segment of mandible.

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    Research progress of erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte kinase receptor and ephrin ligand in alveolar bone remodeling
    Wang Linxuan,Wang Qi,Zhao Yun,Mi Fanglin
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  724-729.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019089
    Abstract ( 584 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1565KB) ( 176 )   Save

    The erythropoietin producing hepatocyte kinase receptor and ephrin ligand (ephrin/Eph) are new signal pathways associated with bone remodeling in addition to the receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand/receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB/osteoprotegenin (RANKL/RANK/OPG). In alveolar bone remodeling, ephrin/Eph-related factors are not only related to the interaction between bone cells but also affected by periodontal ligament cells. The expression of related factors in the process of alveolar bone tissue remodeling is substantially different from that for normal bone tissue. This difference reveals the complexity and importance of ephrin/Eph-related factors in the regulation of bone remodeling. This study reviews the research progress on the interaction of the ephrin/Eph pathway between bone cells and periodontal ligament cells to participate in alveolar bone remodeling.

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    Effects of systemic and local factors on microbial homeostasis around implants
    Huang Xiaoyu,Li Mingyun,Zhou Xue- dong,Cheng Lei
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  730-734.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019090
    Abstract ( 723 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF(pc) (1476KB) ( 291 )   Save

    Dental implantation is a routine treatment for tooth loss. With the increasing number of cases of planting failure, the main factor, peri-implantitis, has become the focus of experts and scholars. We recently found that certain systemic and local factors, such as smoking, drinking, diabetes, periodontitis, estrogen deficiency, oral hygiene, and cemented prostheses, may be involved in the occurrence, development, and prognosis of this disease. The Human Microbiome Project and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota, and the focus on the microbiology change of implants has gradually increased. We aimed to determine the influence of oral microbiota on the occurrence, development, and prognosis of peri-implant diseases by reviewing the recent research progress on peri-implant disease-related oral and systemic diseases.

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    Research progress on complete denture with neutral zone technology
    Sun Shuzhen,Yang Yadong,Yang Jian
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  735-739.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019083
    Abstract ( 1291 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF(pc) (2888KB) ( 497 )   Save

    Loose and unstable lower complete denture is a common problem faced by edentulous patients with severely resorbed mandibular ridges. Neutral zone technology serves as a guide of where to set teeth and how to contour the polished surface of the denture to ensure optimal stability, retention, facial support, and esthetics with complete denture, and patients are satisfied with the technology. This technique is not new but is not widely practiced due to lack of experience of dentists. This review summarizes the characteristics and importance of neutral zone technology, the materials and techniques for recording the neutral zone, and some related topics. This research will aid in the clinical application of neutral zone technique.

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    Orthodontic treatment in sequential treatment of cleft lip and palate
    Song Shaohua,Mo Shuixue
    Int J Stomatol. 2019, 46 (6):  740-744.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2019074
    Abstract ( 946 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF(pc) (1462KB) ( 448 )   Save

    The multidisciplinary sequential treatment of the cleft lip and palate is universally recognized and widely implemented worldwide. Orthodontics treatment plays an important role in the sequential treatment of cleft lip and palate. The orthodontist’s perspective focuses on monitoring patients’ facial and occlusal growth and development. Orthodontists have the professional sensitivity to address the problems of occlusal and facial skeletal type secondary to the repair of cleft lip and palate. Orthodontists can also record the changes in the occlusal and facial features during orthodontic treatment. From the orthodontics perspective, this paper discusses the role and the status of orthodontic treatment in the sequential treatment of cleft lip and palate. This paper reviews the published scientific research on orthodontic intervention in the sequential treatment for cleft lip and palate during all the stages of development (from birth to adulthood) as a reference and guide for clinical and scientific research development.

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