Table of Content

    01 May 2017, Volume 44 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Expert Forum
    Confusion and differentiation of periapical radiolucent lesions
    Huang Dingming, Ning Jiali, Zheng Guangning, Zhou Xuedong.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  249-255.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.001
    Abstract ( 1025 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF(pc) (7304KB) ( 1399 )   Save

    Periapical lesions can be of endodontic or nonendodontic origin. Especially when nonendodontic periapical lesions are associated with teeth with pulp necrosis or that were previously treated endodontically, it may lead to misdiagnosis and an ineffective therapeutic protocol. This article summarizes the imaging diagnosis and differentiation of the periapical radiolucent lesions, and provides reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

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    Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics
    Comparative evaluation of shaping ability of HyFlex, S3, K3XF and ProTaper in simulated curved canals
    Li Zongli, Peng Bin.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  256-260.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.002
    Abstract ( 877 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (1384KB) ( 422 )   Save

    Objective To compare the shaping ability of HyFlex, S3, K3XF and ProTaper in simulated resin canals. Methods Forty curved artificial root canals in resin blocks were divided into four groups randomly, and prepared to an apical using HyFlex, S3, K3XF and ProTaper, respectively. Images of pre- and post-instrumentation were superimposed by Photoshop CS5. Incidence of instrument fracture was recorded. The amount of resin removed by each system was measured at 10 measuring points by AutoCAD 2010. The data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance.Results One case of instrument fracture occurred in S3, K3XF and ProTaper respectively. The centering ability of HyFlex was the best at 2 mm to 3 mm from the apex(P<0.05). At 4 mm to 6 mm levels, K3XF showed a significantly higher centering ability(P<0.05). Conclusion The four systems could maintain the original canal morphology well without obvious canal transportation and ledging. In the apical of the root canal, the shaping ability of HyFlex was the best compared with others, whereas K3XF seemed to have more advantages in the middle.

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    The effect of anatomy of apical zone of permanent teeth on root canal therapy
    Huang Xiaoxiang, Zhang Ru, Hou Benxiang.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  261-266.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.003
    Abstract ( 838 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF(pc) (1121KB) ( 620 )   Save
    The purpose of the root canal therapy is to eliminate the inspection and obtain a perfect obturation of the root canal, so that to prevent and cure the periapical lesions. Complex variation of the apical third, including the different kinds of the apical foramens, the curve of the root canal, high presence of the lateral canals et al, will influence the every step of the root canal therapy, increases the difficulty of it and affect the prognosis consequently. This review highlights the effect of anatomy of apical third of permanent teeth on root canal therapy.
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    Research progress on the clinical treatment of regenerative endodontics in immature permanent teeth
    Lei Qiyin, Chen Ke.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  267-272.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.004
    Abstract ( 1012 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF(pc) (1168KB) ( 719 )   Save
    Currently, the main treatment of pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis in immature permanent teeth with open apex is apexification, which has the high rate in root fracture in prognosis. Recently, with the success cases of the regenerative endodontics gradually increased, more patients were willing to receive it. About 35 papers, 92 cases and reports were collected and analyzed. The progress of regenerative endodontics applied in clinical treatment was summarized in this paper.
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    The effect of intracanal medications on mechanical properties of teeth
    Li Shaorong, Zhang Ru, Hou Benxiang.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  273-278.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.005
    Abstract ( 750 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1050KB) ( 405 )   Save
    One of the main goals of the root canal treatment is the elimination of microorganisms from the contaminated root canal system. Instrumentation alone will not allow for adequate debridement and disinfection of the complex root canal system. Therefore, some irrigants or disinfectants are required. However, these medications can affect the components of dentine and influence the mechanical properties of root; at last, it can decrease the fracture resistance of teeth, the rate of success in endodontic treatment. The aim of this paper is to review the influence of intracanal medications on mechanical properties of teeth and evaluate their safety.
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    Diagnosis and therapy for calcified root canals
    Wu Shanshan, Zhang Ru, Hou Benxiang.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  279-283.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.006
    Abstract ( 1367 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF(pc) (1110KB) ( 643 )   Save
    Pulp calcification is one of important factors that make root canal preparation difficult. The pathogency is not clear. Many factors could promote its progression, including age, trauma and microorganisms and so on. Diagnosis methods usually include X-ray radiography, cone beam computer tomography, observation under an operative microscope and histologic sections. Applying an operative microscope and ultrasonic together in dealing with calcified canals during root canal treatment could raise the success rate. This paper reviews the causes, influence factors, diagnosis and treatment methods of pulp calcification.
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    Research status of NiTi retreatment instrumentations for the removal of filling material in the root canal
    Sun Xiao-yang, Li Xia.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  284-287.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.007
    Abstract ( 835 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (1099KB) ( 1097 )   Save
    The primary purpose of root canal retreatment is for the removal of filling materials from and cleaning of root canals. NiTi retreatment instrumentations are useful for this procedure, but they also have some limitations. This paper will focus on the status of research focusing on these problems.
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    Original Articles
    Mutation detection and analysis in EDA gene in four hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia families
    Lu Shouyi, Gao Qingping, Zhang Xiaoyu, He Fangqi, Chen Yunjia, Zeng Tingwen, Yu Huimin
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  288-293.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.008
    Abstract ( 578 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (7511KB) ( 408 )   Save
    Objective Four hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia(HED) families were collected and analyzed the EDA gene sequence to evaluate the pathogenic mutation position, type, and provided a basis for clinical diagnosis. Methods Extract patients and their relatives’ peripheral blood of HED families, including 5 patients and 12 asymptomatic people. And another unrelated 100 people’s peripheral blood were collected as normal control. Design eight pairs of primers, polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and normal sequence alignment. Results EDA gene mutation was found in each patient of four families, respectively c.466C>T, c.663-697del, c.587-615del, c.878T>G. Heterozygous mutation was found in carriers. And there was no mutation in unrelated people. Conclusion The probands’ and patients’ disease resulted from the mutations c.466C>T, c.663-697del, c.587-615del, c.878T>G for EDA gene. The last three mutations have not been reported.
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    Microbiological community analysis by high-throughput sequencing of subgingival plaque in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after subgingival scaling and root planing
    Zhao Hong, Wang Xinlin, Lü Zhi, Wang Dongqing, Su Jianrong
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  294-300.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.009
    Abstract ( 739 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1297KB) ( 431 )   Save
    Objective This study aims to observe the changes in the microbiological community of a subgingival plaque in chronic periodondotis after subgingival scaling and root planing(SRP). The observation was performed via high-throughput sequencing. The feasibility of this approach in diagnosis and prognosis in chronic periodontitis was then explored by microflora transition. Methods Ten patients with chronic periodontitis under treatment in the Periodontics Department of Beijing Stomatological Hospital were selected in this study. From each patient, we obtained genomic DNA from the subgingival plaque before SRP and then three months after SRP in the same sampling site. High-throughput sequencing analysis was then performed to investigate the diversity and relative abundance of the subgingival plaque microflora from phyla to species. Results In the phylum level, 16 phyla were detected, of which eight constitute 99% of the sequences in the subgingival plaque samples from each time point. In the genus level, 128 different genera were detected in all time points. The results showed that the relative abundance of Tannerella decreased three months after SRP(P<0.05), whereas those of Leptotrichia and Streptococcus increased three months after SRP(P<0.05). In the species level, 6 putative pathogens were detected. The relative abundance of Tannerella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia decreased three months after SRP(P<0.05). Conclusion The microflora of a subgingival plaque in chronic periodondotis is diverse, and the relative abundance of pathogens decreased after SRP, whereas the probiotics increased. Thus, SRP can change the microbiological community.
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    Quantitative analysis of the load tolerance of maxillary incisors with ceramic-laminated veneers for various incisal margin preparations
    Zhang Yarong, Liu Yang, Zhang Ling, Yu Haiyang
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  301-303.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.010
    Abstract ( 610 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF(pc) (1139KB) ( 546 )   Save
    Objective Ceramic-laminated veneer has been extensively used in clinics due to its aesthetics and minimally invasive performance. However, its working life and load tolerance remain unclear. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the stress tolerance of different ceramic-laminated veneer designs and materials for incisor restorations. Methods A total of 160 extracted human maxillary incisors were randomly divided into eight groups. Each group was assigned with tooth preparations of the palatal chamfer design or butt joint design, and the materials used were castable glass ceramic or zirconia ceramic. The veneers were bonded to the teeth and subsequently subjected to a maximum loading test on a universal testing machine in different loading angles to check the load tolerance. Results The load tolerance of the butt joint design with castable glass ceramic-laminated veneers was better than that of the palatal chamfer design at both loading angles of 60°and 125°. However, the palatal chamfer design with zirconia ceramic had better concentrated stress distribution. With the 60° loading angle, the palatal chamfer design with zirconia ceramic tolerated the load better than that with the castable glass ceramic. However, they were not significantly different from the butt joint design. At the loading angle of 125°, the zirconia ceramic-laminated veneers showed significantly better load tolerance for both the palatal chamfer design and the butt joint design. Conclusion The palatal chamfer design showed significantly better load tolerance than the butt joint design. Although bonding difficulties were observed in the zirconia ceramic-laminated veneer, the material still had potential clinical application value due to the favorable stress tolerance.
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    Impacts of malocclusion on daily performances in urban and rural children
    Sun Chengjun, Xu Fangqing, Chen Yangping, Liu Fengyi, Luo Jiaying, Xia Binbin
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  304-309.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.011
    Abstract ( 727 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1054KB) ( 237 )   Save
    Objective Research the effects of malocclusion on the daily performances of urban and rural children. Methods Urban and rural children aged between 11 and 14 years old were selected as the research subjects. The type of occlusion among the research subjects was determined based on Angle’s classification of malocclusion, and the effects of malocclusion on the daily performances of children were evaluated using the Chinese version of the child oral impacts on daily performances inventory(Child-OIDP). Results Malocclusion influenced the daily performances of 73.5% of the investigated children. However, the differences between the Child-OIDP scores among the different types of malocclusion identified was not statistically significant(P>0.05). Child-OIDP scores in eating, speaking, teeth cleaning, emotion, and overall effects of rural children were higher compared with those of the urban children(P<0.05), and the scores among different aspects were statistically different(P<0.05). Conclusion Malocclusion had a prevalent effect on the daily performances of children, and malocclusion significantly affected teeth cleaning, eating, and smiling of the children. Moreover, malocclusion has a more significant effect on the daily performance of rural children compared with that of rural children.
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    Orofacial granulomatosis
    Chen Hong, Lin Mei.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  310-314.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.012
    Abstract ( 1640 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF(pc) (1197KB) ( 715 )   Save
    Orofacial granulomatosis(OFG) is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disorder affecting the mouth and perioral region, typically presenting with swelling of the lips and inflammation of oral mucosa. The etiology remains largely unknown, and the diagnosis and appropriate therapy for OFG has not yet been well defined for all patients. This paper is a review of the epidemiology, etiopathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and treatment in patients with OFG.
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    Progress review of diagnosis and treatment of cemental tear
    Xie Chengjia, Ge Shaohua.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  315-319.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.013
    Abstract ( 2605 )   HTML ( 78 )   PDF(pc) (1273KB) ( 1783 )   Save
    Cemental tears refer to the detachment of cemental fragment from the root surface, which can cause a rapid periodontal attachment loss as a kind of unusual root fracture. The typical symptom is a localized deep periodontal pocket, which is accompanied by other symptoms, such as a sinus tract or pain. Early diagnosis of cemental tear is difficult to achieve. Case reports on cemental tears are rare, especially in local research. A precise morbidity statistics about this disease in different countries and areas has not been obtained. However, the incidence of cemental tears is relatively higher than that of the clinical data obtained, especially among elderly people. Thus, this study reviewed the etiology, clinical diagnosis, and treatment of cemental tears, to provide guidance for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cemental tears in the future.
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    Study of the adhesion mechanism of oral Streptococcus mutans based on atomic force microscope
    Gai Kuo, Hao Liying, Jiang Li.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  320-324.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.014
    Abstract ( 813 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1136KB) ( 654 )   Save
    Atomic force microscope(AFM) is an ideal tool for detecting the fundamental interactions between bacteria and biomaterials and studying the morphology and mechanics of microsystems including oral Streptococcus mutans. In this paper, the application of AFM in study of the adhesion mechanisms and influencing factors are reviewed, which summarizes the molecular mechanism of the adhesion of oral Streptococcus mutans. Thus, it provides mechanical basis and a new way for studying bacterial adhesion.
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    Drug management of oral submucous fibrosis
    Liu Jinli, Chen Fangman, Jiang Lu.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  325-331.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.015
    Abstract ( 786 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1127KB) ( 968 )   Save
    As the pathogenesis of oral submucons fibrosis is obscure, this disease is still lack of unified treatment. Drug management remains the major treatment plan. This paper summarizes a wide range of drug management which have been attempted till date, and claims to use different drug depending on the stage of the disease.
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    Application of dental follicle cells in periodontal tissue regeneration
    Yang Yang, Xu Yan.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  332-335.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.016
    Abstract ( 902 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1103KB) ( 894 )   Save
    Derived from ectodermal mesenchyme, dental follicle cells(DFCs) are periodontal tissue precursor cells that exhibit heterogeneity and multilineage differentiation potential through osteogenic, cementogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation. DFCs are extensively used for periodontal tissue regeneration, because they can be easily harvested from the attached dental follicles, which are separated from the calcified teeth after the impacted third molar extractions. DFCs are suitable seeding cells that can be combined with scaffold to generate periodontal-like tissues and can be co-cultured with other seeding cells or provide microenvironments favorable for tissue regeneration.
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    Research progress on exosomes and oral diseases
    Wu Jiameng, Wang Xiaoying.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  336-339.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.017
    Abstract ( 1042 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF(pc) (1030KB) ( 524 )   Save
    Exosomes secreted by various types of cells are small vesicular bodies that contain many types of proteins and RNAs. They have multiple functions, such as anti-tumor immunity and angiogenesis. Their possible use as oral disease biomarkers and vaccine candidates was also discussed. This review presents recent advances in exosomes and the relationship with oral diseases.
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    Influence of cysteine cathepsins on dentin bonding durability
    Liao Wenting, Li Yan.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  340-343.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.018
    Abstract ( 964 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1160KB) ( 372 )   Save
    Cysteine cathepsins are the major members of cathepsins. Exposed collagen is produced by demineralization during the process of dentin bonding. The degradation of the exposed collagen by endogenous proteases is one of the main factors that affect dentin bond durability. In addition to matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs), which play an important role in the decrease of dentin bonding durability, cysteine cathepsins are activated during the bonding process and then participate in the destruction of collagen in the hybrid layer. This study clarifies the interaction between cysteine cathepsins and MMPs and the influence ofcysteine cathepsinson dentin bonding and reviews the research progress of the application of cysteine cathepsins inhibitor in improving dentin bonding durability.
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    Application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing of milled titanium framework in the implant-support rehabilitation of edentulous patients
    Li Yanling, Wang Jinming.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  344-349.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.019
    Abstract ( 599 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1121KB) ( 608 )   Save
    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing(CAD/CAM) has been widely used in implantology for a long time. The rapid development and improvement of such method have broadened the scope of prosthetic implant treatments and brought profound changes to the implantology industry. Compared with casting alloy framework, CAD/CAM milled titanium framework has the advantages of precision, aesthetics and passive fit, time efficiency, and simplicity of procedure. The application of CAD/CAM milled titanium framework in the implant-supported fixed rehabilitation of edentulous patients was reviewed.
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    Application of three-dimensional digital technology in orthodontics
    Liu Shangyu, Feng Yunxia.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  350-353.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.020
    Abstract ( 1022 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF(pc) (1034KB) ( 1118 )   Save
    Three-dimensional digital technology is gradually being developed in orthodontics. Analysis of teeth, airway, mandibular movement, and other aspects through digital modeling assists in clinical diagnosis and treatment. The acquisition mode of dental casts is changed from the traditional plaster to digital. Data acquisition is achieved through different methods. Reconstruction models have been developed for analysis and diagnosis in orthodontic treatment, digital tooth arrangement, design of personalized brackets, and invisible appliances. Gradual development in orthodontics has led to the emergence of digital analysis, diagnosis, and treatment. Reconstruction models facilitate effective patient treatment. This review summarizes the applications of digital technology in orthodontics.
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    Application of perforator flap in the reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects
    Wu Lianjun, Wang Huiming.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  354-358.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.021
    Abstract ( 657 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1039KB) ( 406 )   Save
    Perforator flap is an axial flap of skin or subcutaneous tissue that is based on the dissection of a small diameter(0.5-0.8 mm). Because it aims to minimize donor site morbidity while providing the reconstructive surgeon with more versatility than other flap types, perforator flaps is widely applied in the reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects. Recently, there are more and more reports about the application of perforator flap in the reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects. However, the preoperative assessment of the perforator flap and postoperative flap thinning is rarely reported. We reviewed the characteristic, classification, anatomy of the perforator flap and its application in the reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects.
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    Progression of mandibular retrognathism caused by progressive condylar resorption in orthognathic surgery
    Dai Zhi, Hou Min, Zhang Chunxiang
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  359-362.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.022
    Abstract ( 834 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (1036KB) ( 628 )   Save
    The etiology and pathogenesis of progressive condylar resorption/idiopathic condylar resorption(PCR/ICR) remain unclear to date. The clinical manifestations of this condition are morphological changes, reduced condylar volume, and decreased ramus height. Serious PCR/ICR can lead to mandibular retrognathism. Surgery as an effective therapy for maxillofacial deformities can improve functionality and maxillofacial aesthetics. This review focuses on the orthognathic surgery of PCR at present.
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    Selection of tooth-colored restorative material for worn anterior teeth
    Yao Chenmin, Zhou Liqun, Huang Cui.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  363-367.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.023
    Abstract ( 707 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF(pc) (1111KB) ( 445 )   Save
    Tooth wear is a common type of tooth surface loss distinguished from dental caries, trauma, or developmental abnormalities. Worn anterior teeth mainly influence the appearance and pronunciation of an individual. Restoration of worn anterior teeth is a common clinical problem. In consideration of aesthetic effects, worn anterior teeth are often restored using tooth-colored restorative materials, mainly composite resins and ceramics. During the restoration of worn anterior teeth, factors such as changes in chemical compositions, structures of worn anterior teeth, and various properties of tooth-colored restorative materials should be considered. Thus, the selection of tooth-colored restorative materials remains a controversial research hotspot in prosthodontics. This review systematically elaborates the selection of tooth-colored restorative materials, including composite resins and ceramics, for worn anterior teeth.
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    Eye tracking study of facial aesthetics
    Wang Xi, Bao Baicheng.
    Inter J Stomatol. 2017, 44 (3):  368-372.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2017.03.024
    Abstract ( 807 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1042KB) ( 379 )   Save

    Eye movement is related to psychology. This movement includes fixation, saccade, and pursuit movement, which serve as stimuli in the foveal area of the eyes. Eye trackers precisely record eye movement to analyze the cognitive and psychological activities of subjects. People viewing faces undergo aesthetic judgment subconsciously, and the conscious can influence the attention allocation of subjects. Faces, subjects, and task factors can change the basic eye movement pattern. The visual attention allocation of faces changes on the basis of the triangular eye movement pattern. Malocclusion, cleft lip and palate, and facial deformity can change the eye movement pattern. Eye trackers can quantify the attention deviation in abnormal faces and provide a new evaluation method to determine the effect of correcting the abnormality. Such devices objectively record the physiological changes in people during the aesthetic processing of faces, thereby facilitating the identification of the facial aesthetic pattern. In the future, eye trackers can be used to assess treatment needs, level diseases, and evaluate the curative effect of deformed faces on the basis of eye tracking data and computer science.

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