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Table of Content

    01 September 2016, Volume 43 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Regenerative endodontics: a new treatment modality for pulp regeneration
    Yang Maobin1, Zeng Qian2
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  495-499.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.001
    Abstract ( 1442 )   HTML ( 26 )   PDF(pc) (1408KB) ( 1102 )   Save

    Regenerative endodontics could promote dental pulp regeneration based on guide tissue regeneration and tissue engineering technology. It has become a new treatment modality and alternative for conventional treatment such as apexification. Dental stem cells, biomaterial-scaffolds and growth factors are three key factors of regenerative endodontics.

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    Exploration of building the pig tongue model for palatoplasty
    Li Chenghao, Li Jingtao, Shi Bing
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  500-504.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.002
    Abstract ( 616 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (4097KB) ( 516 )   Save

    -Cleft palate is the most common congenital deformity. Surgeons tried to close the cleft and achieve a good velopharyngeal function by different procedures, however, palatoplasty is of some risks because of the limited operation field, complex anatomy and meticulous levator reconstruction. So, that is a problem about how to train the junior surgery and help them improve the skills by more effective ways. Here we introduce a new practical model about palatoplasty for junior surgeons training.

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    A case report on neurilemmoma of the mandible
    Chang Zheng1, Gao Pan1, Xuan Ming1, Wang Xiaoyi1, Ma Xiangrui1, Li Kui2
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  504-506.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.003
    Abstract ( 870 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (5225KB) ( 437 )   Save
    Neurilemmoma is common in soft tissues in clinical practice but rare in bone. In this work, we demonstrated a case of neurilemmoma located in the mandible. Through literature review, we discussed the clinical feature, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this neurilemmoma.
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    Comparison of artifacts on magnetic resonance imaging caused by different porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns and metal crowns
    Qin Kun1, Zhang Dongpo2
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  507-510.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.004
    Abstract ( 773 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1294KB) ( 519 )   Save
    Objective This study aimed to investigate the artifacts of different porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns and metal crowns on magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). Methods One Co-Cr porcelain crown, one Co-Cr metal crown, one Ni-Cr porcelain crown, and one Ni-Cr metal crown were placed in a cylindrical plastic vessel filled with distilled water. An arcrylic resin crown was used as control and then scanned using roution head sequence, including FRFSET2WI, GRET2*WI, and T1FLAIR, on a 1.5 T scanner. The MRI artifact areas of different porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns and metal crowns were calculated and analyzed with variance test. Results ANOVA of factorial design indicated significant differences among the crowns. Co-Cr metal crown produced the largest artifact, whereas Ni-Cr porcelain crown produced the least. Conclusion Various crowns differently affected MRI images. The artifacts produced by the crowns were closely related to the type of material.
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    A clinical evaluation of IPS Empress ceramic veneers in esthetic restoration of anterior teeth with different kinds of veneer designs
    Chen Lijuan1, Meng Qingfei2, Wan Yanjun1
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  511-514.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.005
    Abstract ( 670 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF(pc) (1057KB) ( 437 )   Save
    Objective To evaluate the success rates of IPS Empress ceramic veneers in esthetic restoration of anterior teeth with different veneer designs. Methods 124 anterior teeth in 41 patients were collected and prepared by labial overlap (type I), incisive edge overlap (type L) and finishing lines extended proximally (type U). The veneers’ integrity, fracture, color match and the marginal situation were evaluated at 1 week, 6 months and 12 months. Results For type I, 1 failure was found at 12-month follow-up. For type L, 2 failed at 6-month follow-up and 1 failure at 12-month followup. For type U, 1 failed at 6-month follow-up. There was no significant differences in success rates among three types of veneers. Conclusion Each type of IPS Empress ceramic veneer could get excellent clinical effectiveness.
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    Comparison of the accuracy of Digora and Propex on the measurement of working length of root canal
    Liang Jichao, Wang Fen, Zhang Fengying, Zhang Zhenghua, Hou Meijuan, Pang Fusheng, Zhou Feng
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  515-518.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.006
    Abstract ( 706 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1448KB) ( 652 )   Save
    Objective This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the X-ray digital imaging system Digora and the electronic apex locator Propex on the measurement of the working length of root canal. Methods The study comprised 260 teeth(369 roots)that needed to be extracted from 90 patients. Each tooth was radiographed with the Digora system, and the root length was measured in the Digora digital imaging software with the length tool. The teeth were anesthetized and accessed. The working length of the root canal was determined by the apex locator Propex. Finally, the tooth was extracted, and the real length of the root canal was measured directly. The results obtained with Digora and Propex were compared with the real length. Results The difference between the Digora measured length and real length was (2.163±1.194) mm, where as that between the Propex measured length and real length was (0.214±0.542) mm. When a difference of less than 1 mm was acceptable, the measurement accuracy of Digora and Propex was 21.68% and 91.87%, respectively. When a difference of less than 1.5 mm was acceptable, the accuracy of Digora and Propex was 30.35% and 95.66%, respectively. The measurement accuracy of Digora was significantly lower than that of Propex(P<0.01). Conclusion Digora could easily directly evaluate the root canal length, but it could not directly guide clinical operations. Propex could accurately measure the working length of the root canal.
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    Biosynthesis of autoinducer-2 and determination of its bioactivity in vitro
    Zhang Ying, Li Mingyong, Huo Li, Meng Yuan
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  519-523.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.007
    Abstract ( 761 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1827KB) ( 626 )   Save
    Objective This study aimed to produce bioactive autoinducer-2(AI-2) in vitro via molecular biological techniques, as well as provide a basis for further study on the cariogenic virulence regulation mechanism of AI-2 in Streptococcus mutans. Methods Effective prokaryotic recombinant systems for the expression and purification of S-ribosylhomocysteinase(LuxS) and S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase(Pfs) proteins were constructed. After induction by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside, expressing products were purified with the Ni-NTA spin column. AI-2, which is an informational molecule in quorum sensing, was produced in vitro using purified LuxS and Pfs. The bioactivity of AI-2 was tested by Vibrio harveyi BB170 luminescence bioassay, which indirectly proved the bioactivities of purified LuxS and Pfs. Results AI-2 produced in vitro could significantly induce the luminescence of Vibrio harveyi. Furthermore, its luminous intensity was much higher than that induced by the AI-2 produced naturally by a bacterial colony of Streptococcus mutans UA159. Conclusion An efficient expression system for soluble recombinant proteins of LuxS and Pfs was established. The highly active AI-2 was manufactured, which could provide essential materials for further research.
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    Salivary T cell cytokine expression in oral chronic graft-versus-host-disease
    Peng Yan1,2, Yong Xiangzhi1, Feng Doudou1,2, Zeng Qixin1, Mei Guocheng1, Tao Renchuan1,2
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  524-527.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.008
    Abstract ( 558 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1098KB) ( 276 )   Save
    Objective This study aimed to explore the levels of T-cell cytokines in saliva of patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host-disease(cGVHD) who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as well as understand the T-cell immune status in patients. Methods Eighteen oral cGVHD patients were recruited as the transplantation group, and the scores of oral manifestations were recorded. Furthermore, 18 healthy volunteers were selected as healthy controls. The unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected, and the concentrations of T-cell cytokines such as interferon(IFN)-γ, interleukin(IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-10 in saliva were detected by cytometric bead array. Results IFN-γ and IL-4 levels in the transplantation group showed no difference from those of healthy controls. By contrast, the levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher than those of healthy controls(255.04 pg?mL-1 vs. 6.02 pg?mL-1 and 1.49 pg?mL-1 vs. 0.17 pg?mL-1, respectively; P<0.01). The scores of oral manifestations were positively related to IL-6(r=0.978, P<0.01) and IL-10 (r=0.668, P<0.01) levels. The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were also positively correlated(r=0.666, P<0.01). Conclusion The expression levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in saliva were both up-regulated in oral cGVHD patients. Severe oral manifestations corresponded to high levels of IL-6 and IL-10. Thus, Th2 cell cytokines(IL-6 andIL-10) might play a significant role in the pathogenesis of oral cGVHD.
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    Comparison of patients from public hospitals and private clinics about their selection and satisfaction with crown and bridge prosthesis
    Chen Song, Huang Senyuan, Wang Peiqi, Zhang Enhong, Qiu Yu, Wang Jian
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  528-532.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.009
    Abstract ( 804 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1024KB) ( 426 )   Save
    Objective This study aimed to investigate the potential difference between patients from public hospitals and private clinics about their selection and satisfaction with fixed crown and bridge prosthesis. Methods A total of 187 patients who received crown and bridge restoration were investigated via questionnaire. Two questionnaires, A and B, were developed. Questionnaire A was designed for the patients who received crown and bridge restoration for the first time. This questionnaire focused on how the participants valued the aesthetics, strength, and other characteristics of their restorations. Questionnaire B was used for the participants who had previously undergone crown and bridge restoration; the aim of this questionnaire was to investigate their satisfaction about their prostheses. Data were analyzed by SPSS 21.0. Results Significant differences were found in the patients’ income level, their safety considerations, and prices of the prostheses. However, patients who had previously undergone crown and bridge treatment shared the same degrees of satisfaction regardless of where they were treated. Conclusion Patients with higher income are more willing to have crown and bridge treatment in public hospitals because of their consideration of their safety. They can accept prostheses with higher prices. Private dental clinics in Chengdu are well developed and provide remarkable restoration techniques. To reduce doctor patient conflicts, doctors in public hospitals should focus on communication with patients to underst and their essentialdemands. The doctors should not neglect to inform patients about basic knowledge of crown and bridge restoration.
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    Advances in establishment and application of tooth slice organ culture model
    Liu Fei, He Jingjun
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  533-536.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.010
    Abstract ( 701 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1123KB) ( 433 )   Save
    The tooth slice organ culture model provides a valuable approach for the in vitro study of biological and physical chemical injury and repair processes in the dentin pulp complex over long periods. This paper introduces recent studies on the establishment and application of the model.
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    Retention and relevant research progress of resin-bonded fixed bridges
    Chen Xiwen, Zhou Jinru, Zhu Zhimin
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  537-541.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.011
    Abstract ( 1269 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1102KB) ( 635 )   Save
    Resin-bonded fixed bridge(RBFB) is one type of minimally invasive restoration that has undergone a recent resurgence. Meanwhile, restorative materials, adhesive systems, and bonding techniques have advanced tremendously. These developments promote the popularization of RBFB. This article presents a review on the retention studies and advancements of RBFB.
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    Clinical application of perforator flaps in oromaxillofacial head and neck reconstruction
    Jin Shufang, He Yue
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  542-548.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.012
    Abstract ( 591 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1120KB) ( 405 )   Save
    The perforator flap is a new technology for oromaxillofacial head and neck soft tissue reconstruction. The flap is also a new development in microsurgery. By minimizing any muscle harvesting and trauma, perforator flaps aim to minimize donor site morbidity. Methods of locating perforating vessels for the use of perforator flaps are described in detail. In these methods, the small size of blood vessels and their variation are considered. Intraoperative careful vascular dissection and anastomosis are important for successful flap transplantation. This review will present the principal perforator flaps, particularly those used in oromaxillofacial head and neck reconstruction, including the anterolateral thigh flap, deep inferior epigastric perforator flap, and thoracodorsal artery perforator flap.
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    Use of birth cohort study in dental research
    Ha Qian, Lu Haixia, Feng Xiping
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  549-553.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.013
    Abstract ( 729 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1036KB) ( 665 )   Save
    Cohort studies are highly reliable bases for epidemiological research to reveal the relationships between disease causes and effects. As a typical design, a birth cohort study provides significant advantages over other cohort studies. For instance, birth cohort studies generate high-quality etiological evidence and easily provide baseline data. Such studies also help confirm the effectiveness of preventive measures. Therefore, a birth cohort study on the prevention of oral diseases should be established in dental research. This paper aims to introduce the methods and contents of three large scale birth cohort studies from three different countries. This paper also aims to review the main research outcomes of these studies.
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    Application progress on resin cements in ceramic restorations
    Huo Huan, Yin Jiayue, Ai Hongjun
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  554-559.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.014
    Abstract ( 760 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (1104KB) ( 974 )   Save
    Various all-ceramic restorations have been widely used in clinical settings because of the significantly increasing demand for esthetics in prosthodontic treatments. Thus, adhesive materials, such as resin cements, have been developed for such treatments. Compared with traditional cements, resin cements provide many advantages, including good translucency, high bonding strength, low solubility, and sufficient color matching. Through new technologies and materials, resin cements have been designed in compliance with the current specifications of dental clinics. To provide a reference for the improvement of resin cement applications in clinical settings, we reviewed the development and applications of resin cements locally and internationally. We further summarized the historical development, clinical classification, bonding strength, and influencing factors of resin cements. We also provided insights into the future trends of these materials.
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    Research progress on three-dimensional finite-element analysis method for lingual orthodontics
    Shan Zhiyi, Xu Ziqing, Shen Gang
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  560-564.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.015
    Abstract ( 679 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1097KB) ( 580 )   Save
    With the assistance of computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technologies, customized lingual orthodontics has brought lingual orthodontics back to the front line of orthodontics. As lingual appliances continue to develop, a better understanding of the unique biomechanics of lingual orthodontics is of increasing importance to clinical orthodontists. Three-dimensional finite-element analysis, which has been widely used in orthodontic research, plays an important role in the development of lingual orthodontics. This review investigates the research progress on the use of the three-dimensional finite-element method in lingual orthodontics.
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    Structural function and pathogenic mechanism of cytolethal distending toxin and outer membrane proteins
    Sun Fei1, Zhang Jiangang2, Xiao Shuiqing2
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  565-568.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.016
    Abstract ( 774 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1098KB) ( 421 )   Save
    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans(A.actinomycetemcomitans) is the main pathogenic bacteria of juvenile periodontal diseases and is associated with aggressive periodontitis. A.actinomycetemcomitans cells secrete synthetic cytolethal distending toxin(CDT) and outer membrane protein(OMP), which can be easily planted into the host to destroy immunity function. Thus, the presence of these molecules leads to the progression of periodontal tissue destruction and periodontal diseases. This paper mainly describes the structural function and pathogenic mechanism of the two virulence factors, namely, CDT and OMP, for further research.
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    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 in bone and cartilage homeostasis
    Xu Xin, Wang Yanmin,Bai Ding
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  569-572.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.017
    Abstract ( 1028 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1095KB) ( 392 )   Save
    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog(SIRT)1 is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-positive dependent class 3 histone deacetylase that regulates bone and cartilage metabolism. SIRT1 influences bone development and reconstruction by potentiating osteoblast formation and bone growth and by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. SIRT1 also activates mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. In cartilage homeostasis, SIRT1 is necessary to maintain normal cartilage remodeling. These functions of SIRT1 are related to wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family signal transduction pathway, nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway, forkhead box O transcription factors, and parathyroid hormone. This review summarizes the function and mechanism of SIRT1 in the regulation of bone and cartilage metabolism. This review also describes the potential clinical applications of SIRT1.
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    Relationship of alkali production by plaque biofilm and dental caries
    Zhou Shuangshuang, Zheng Xin, Zhou Xuedong, Xu Xin
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  573-577.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.018
    Abstract ( 799 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (1104KB) ( 747 )   Save
    Alkali production within oral microecology is necessary to modulate the balance of the microenvironment, which influences the configuration and characteristics of the oral microflora. Alkali production impedes the predominance of acidogenic and aciduric bacteria in a low-pH microenvironment and restores micro-ecological balance. Alkali production directly increases environmental pH, attenuates demineralization, and promotes tooth surface remineralization. Alkali production is mainly attributed to microbial arginine metabolism mediated by the arginine deiminase system and urea hydrolysis. Arginine metabolism prevents the growth of acid-generating bacteria but stimulates the growth of alkali producing bacteria; thus, the restoration of microbial disequilibrium in a cariogenic biofilm can be facilitated. Similar caries resistance has been observed in a population with increased urea metabolism. In vivo and in vitro data have indicated that the regulation of microbial alkali production represents a promising ecological approach to caries management. This paper aims to review current studies on the alkali production within oral biofilm, to elucidate the effects of alkali production on microbial ecology, and to describe the onset/progression of dental caries.
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    Research progress on the knockout techniques of prokaryotic microorganisms
    Yang Yan1, Yang Yingming1,2, Hu Tao1,2
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  578-583.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.019
    Abstract ( 809 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF(pc) (1111KB) ( 1007 )   Save
    Gene knockout is a new molecular technique that developed in 1980s which has plays crucial roles in the microbiology functional and basic research. Through the development of several decades, gene knockout technique has been evolved from traditional homogenous recombination to λRed recombination and Cre-loxP system. Recently, the clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 system has been thought to be a very promising methods for microbiology manipulation for its’ convenience and effectiveness based on the activity of endonuclease. This review will focus on the gene deletion technique that has been applied in the microbiology research from the mechanism, application and prospect.
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    Hypoxia and autophagy and their correlation with tumorigenesis and development
    Chen Guanhui, Hou Jinsong
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  584-588.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.020
    Abstract ( 667 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1105KB) ( 426 )   Save
    Autophagy is a stress regulatory mechanism that generally exists in eukaryotic cells. This process promotes tumor development and inhibits tumor proliferation. Autophagy is activated by increasing hypoxia inducible factor-1α level, suppressing the mammalian target of the rapamycin signal pathway, and inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in the tumor hypoxia microenvironment. Autophagy is stimulated through enhancement of glucose metabolism, increase in reactive oxygen species level, downregulation of caveolin 1 expression, and activation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in tumor during rapid cell proliferation and invasion. Autophagy promotes tumor invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. Therefore, novel strategies for inhibiting autophagy may serve as promising therapeutic approach for tumor treatment.
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    Research progress on hypoxia inducible factor-1α and antisense hypoxia inducible factor-1α
    Chen Dongru, Wu Liping
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  589-593.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.021
    Abstract ( 851 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1186KB) ( 317 )   Save
    Hypoxiainducible factor(HIF)-1α is an important molecule that responds to hypoxia, promotes angiogenesis,modulates pH, induces cell autophagy or programmed cell death, and facilitates the differentiation and self-renewal of mesenchymal stem cells. HIF-1α is also involved in reparation and remolding of periodontal tissues as well as in helping cells to adapt to hypoxia and promote the formation and resorption of the alveolar bone. Antisense hypoxia inducible factor(aHIF)-1α is a natural antisense transcript that negatively controls HIF-1α. HIF-1α may have a feedback effect on aHIF-1α. HIF-1α is an important biomarker expressed in primary and metastasis sites in several types of for cancers. HIF-1α is regarded as target for treating cancers. Understanding the functions and regulatory mechanisms of HIF-1α and aHIF-1α provides new opportunity to discover targets for treatment of different diseases and modulate physiological processes.
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    Research progress on nonsurgical periodontal therapy
    Lü Jiao, Zhao Wenfeng
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  594-598.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.022
    Abstract ( 833 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (1040KB) ( 671 )   Save
    Non-surgical technique is the basis of periodontal disease treatments, including scaling and root planning(SRP) and loose teeth fixation. This technique is suitable for patients with periodontal diseases and is the first step of the treatment protocol. Drug therapy is an auxiliary method for treatment of periodontal diseases. The treatment course of the disease is divided into antibiotics and immune regulatory drugs. Antibiotics are classified based on drug delivery routes into systemic or topical. Although traditional SRP presents several limitations, it is more effective than new techniques using periodontal endoscope, laser, and photodynamic therapy. In this paper, research progress on nonsurgical treatment for periodontal diseases is reviewed.
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    Function of immunocyte-derived catecholamine in physiological metabolism and inflammatory diseases
    Xu Xinyue1, Li Xuejian1, Ren Gaotong1, Jiao Kai2,3, Niu Lina3,4
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  599-604.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.023
    Abstract ( 614 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1111KB) ( 453 )   Save
    Immune cells synthesize and secrete catecholamine(CA)-like substances, whose functions are similar to the metabolic effects of CA substances in the nervous and endocrine systems. Immune cells synthesize CA compounds and play an important role not only in physiological processes in inflammatory diseases but also in the development of acute inflammatory bowel diseases, acute inflammatory lung injury, and rheumatoid arthritis. This article reviews the research progress on the role of CA in the metabolism and inflammatory diseases of the body.
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    Relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor and tooth occurrence development
    Hou Liwen, Jiao Ting, Xie Ming
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  605-609.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.024
    Abstract ( 705 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (1096KB) ( 317 )   Save
    Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) is not only involved in promoting vascular endothelial cell division and proliferation but also plays an important role in development, wound healing and bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts derived from VEGF are differentiated from osteoclasts through chemotaxis, resulting in increased number of local osteoclasts and enhanced local bone absorption. The interaction between epithelial and ecto mesenchymal tissues through the development of tooth germ occurs during dentin formation. The inner and outer enamel epithelia and dental papilla cells secrete VEGF and interact with its receptor, thereby promoting ameloblasts into odontoblast differentiation and maturation and influencing the formation of dentin and enamel. Genes involved in tooth occurrence are expressed in the enamel knot at the center of the tooth germ. Moreover, the signal transduction pathways associated with these genes are involved in tooth occurrence. VEGF gene expression is regulated by wingless-type mice mammary tumor virus integration site family/β-chain protein signal transduction pathway. Currently, the roles of VEGF and VEGFR in the development of tooth germ are only elucidated at the superficial level, and their functions and regulatory mechanism must be further investigated.
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    Effect of gingipains on osteoclasts and osteoblasts
    Hou Yubo1, Liu Xinchan2, Yu Haiyan1, Cui Leihua3, Yu Weixian4
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  609-613.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.025
    Abstract ( 589 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1106KB) ( 465 )   Save
    Gingipains are cysteine proteases produced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the major virulent agents of periodontal diseases. On the one hand, gingipains promote the differentiation of osteoclasts to enhance osteoclast function by activating the osteoprotegerin(OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) ligand(RANKL)/receptor activator of the NF-κB signaling pathways through degradation of OPG and induction of RANKL. On the other hand, gingipains inhibit osteoblast function by inducing osteoblast apoptosis through the external pathway mediated by the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and the mitochondrial pathway. These effects eventually lead to alveolar bone loss. This paper presents recent progress on gingipains and their effects on the functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts.
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    Research progress on restoration for dentition defects by combined support of implant and natural tooth
    Niu Xuegang1, Wang Xiaoyong2
    Inter J Stomatol. 2016, 43 (5):  614-618.  DOI: 10.7518/gjkq.2016.05.026
    Abstract ( 799 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (1100KB) ( 431 )   Save
    Some controversies prevail on the clinical application of implant-natural tooth-supported fixed partial dentures. This technique could be a preferable choice for restoration of dentition defects because of its simplicity, effectiveness, and long-term results. However, the combination of tooth and implant has not been established as an ideal choice but may be a second choice when implant-supported bridge could not be used. Implant-natural tooth-supported removable partial dentures could also be considered. The application of implant in the distal region of dentition defects could switch the tooth-mucosa support to the tooth-implant support with a high success rate. In conclusion, implant-supported fixed partial dentures may be an optimal choice in the condition of continuous dentition defects; otherwise, the combined support of implant and tooth could be used.
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