Int J Stomatol ›› 2022, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (5): 529-536.doi: 10.7518/gjkq.2022065

• Original Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Intervention effect of virtual reality technology on dental fear in the treatment of deep caries in children

Ren Hai-xia1,2(),Liu Yingfeng2,Liang Huimin1,Li Jiayong2,Wen Chunqin2,Wang Chunmei1()   

  1. 1.College of Nursing, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China
    2.Dept. of Stomatology, Tianjin Rehabilitation Center, Tianjin 300191, China
  • Received:2021-11-01 Revised:2022-02-17 Online:2022-09-01 Published:2022-09-16
  • Contact: Chunmei Wang;


Objective This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the virtual reality (VR) technology in reducing pain perception and anxiety level in children with dental fear (DF) during the treatment of deep caries and analyze the effect of VR technology in relieving DF. Methods Children aged 5-8 years who need pulpotomy for deep caries were selected as research object. A total of 160 children were screened out by the children’s fear survey schedule-dental subscale (CFSS-DS), of which 120 and 40 cases were mild (CFSS-DS score=16-30) and moderate (CFSS-DS score=31-45) DF. Children with mild and moderate DF were randomly divided into four groups: mild DF VR (group 1, 60 cases), mild DF Tell-Show-Do (TSD; group 2, 60 cases), moderate DF VR (group 3, 20 cases), and moderate DF TSD (group 4, 20 ca-ses) groups. Groups 1 and 3 were intervened by wearing VR glasses (VR group), whereas groups 2 and 4 were intervened by TSD behavior guidance (TSD group). The effects of two intervention measures on alleviating children’s DF were evaluated using psychological evaluation (i.e., CFSS-DS), cooperative behavior evaluation, physiological response (heart rate), pain degree, and treatment compliance evaluation. VR glasses’ applicability assessment scale was used to analyze its applicability. Results All 160 children completed treatment. No significant difference in the CFSS-DS score and heart rate before treatment was observed between VR and TSD groups (P>0.05). The CFSS-DS score differences before and after treatment, heart rate du-ring treatment (in group 3), pain grade, and treatment compliance of TSD and VR groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in heart rate during treatment between groups 1 and 2 (P>0.05). The ratio of the heart rate difference (before and during treatment) to baseline was also not statistically significant (P>0.05). The intragroup comparison and heart rates during treatment were higher than those before treatment in four groups (P<0.01). Significant differences in CFSS-DS score differences before and after treatment were observed in groups 1, 3, and 4 (P<0.05) but not in group 2 (P>0.05). Children had high evaluation on the applicability of VR glasses. Conclusion The VR technology was superior to TSD guidance in reducing the anxiety and pain degree of children with DF, but no significant difference was observed in reducing the physiological response (heart rate) of children compared with TSD guidance. Children were satisfied with the application of VR glasses.

Key words: virtual reality technology, Tell-Show-Do behavior guidance, children, dental fear, pain

CLC Number: 

  • R 78


Tab 1

General information of children"


Tab 2

Score of CFSS-DS scale before and after treatment"


Tab 3

Venham clinical anxiety and cooperative beha-vior rating evaluation"


Tab 4

Heart rates before and during treatment"





Tab 5

Evaluation of pain grade during local injection"


Tab 6

Evaluation of treatment compliance"


Tab 7

Evaluation of VR glasses applicability"

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